Candler School of Theology
Emory University. Ga.
1 051 2
K. A. YOl N(i.
BY R. A. YOUNG
Nashville, Tenn. ; Dallas, Tex.
Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, South
Bahbee & Smith, Agents
TO THE GRANDCHILDREN
ROBERTA YOUNG KIRKPATRIGK
THIS BOOK IS MOST
AFFECTION A TEL Y
Ox last Monday I reached the middle of
my superfluous decade, Psalm xc. 10. Since
then I have been asked over and over agrain
to write some sketches from memory. One
objection presents itself: my aversion to
egotism is so great that I do not know how
I shall manage the columnar "I." I sup-
pose 1 had better imitate Oliver Wendell
Holmes, and say to the reader: "Look out
If I had a blackboard and three pieces of
chalk, I could draw you a picture of the
union schoolhouse two miles west of Camp-
bell's Station, in East Tennessee. It was
actually built of hewed logs, with the cracks
daubed and limed. It had a brick chimney
at each end, and was covered with twenty-
seven inch boards. There was nothing
equal to it in all the surrounding country
The Leas and Mabrys and Bells and Mar-
tins, et id omne ge/i.us, were able to have a
better schoolhouse than other people.
Each year brought a new man to the chair.
lie was the itinerant country schoolmaster,
a gentleman who could read, write, and ci-
pher beyond the single rule of three. Of
Olney's geography and Murray's English
grammar he knew precisely nothing; and if
you had told him that away back in the his-
tory of the world all Gaul was divided into
three parts, or that a man named Adherbal
had some complaints against Jugurtha, he
would have wondered where you got your
information. Finally the Leas and Mabrys
went off to the University of Knoxville, and
the Bells and Martins and Youngs journeyed
to Washington College.
In 1780 the first school in the Mississippi
Yalley was established at Salem, in Wash-
ington County, by Samuel Doak, D.D. In
1783 this school was incorporated as Martin
Academy by the Legislature of North Caro-
lina. In 1705 it received its present name,
Washington College, and sent out its first
irraduate. It is said that Dr. Doak de-
clined the presidency of Princeton before
coming out to the Watauga settlement.
He was succeeded in the presidency by his
son, John Whitfield JJoak, D.D., and in the
lapse of time a grandson came to the head
of the institution, Archibald Alexander
Doak, D.D. This gentleman was the first
real scholar I ever saw- He had all the ad-
vantages our country could afford, at Wash-
ington, Princeton, Yale, and Harvard. If I
were an artist, I should want the genius and
brush of Titian to represent his scholarly
appearance. I am tempted to borrow from
Sir Richard Steele, and say that to know him
for four years was a liberal education. He
taught the ancient languages and preached
for us on Sunday mornings.
The members of our faculty were all grad-
uates of Princeton or Edinburgh — all Oal-
vinists of the bluest type. This doctrine ex-
actly suited our Scotch- Irish neighborhood.
They could all sing Watts and Rippon with
the finest nasal twang, and talk u Charnock
on the Vttributes" to perfection. They
seemed to delight in the contemplation of the
10 A , /;i//\7.s , c/:\r/:,s'.
sovereignty, justice, and wrath of God. I
soon grew weary of all this, and went out
to a little country meetinghouse and cast
in my lot with the people called Methodists.
There we sang the Wesleyan hymns and
talked of goodness, mercy, and grace.
In the year 1895 Washington College cel-
ebrated its one hundredth anniversary. To
my great surprise, they invited me to deliv-
er the centennial address. I had left those
ample grounds just fifty years ago, but there
were half a dozen people present whom I had
seen before. About five hundred modern
Presbyterians listened to the speech. Toward
the close 1 enumerated all the religious serv-
ices held b} r their forefathers, beginning
with daily morning prayers at five o'clock
and ending with two long manuscript ser-
mons on Sunday morning before dinner. I
infer that they rather enjoyed it, for the next
morning the trustees conferred on me anoth-
In 1843 Dr. Daniel Baker, of Washing-
ton City, came to see us, and preached his
twenty-two revival sermons. lie was the
first preacher of national reputation the stu-
dents had heard. After the first day the ex-
citement became so great that the regular
college exercises were suspended. His pulpit
became a throne of power. I was so com-
pletely captured that I followed him over to
Leesburg and heard the same series of ser-
mons the second time. After the eloquent
Doctor died they were published in a hand-
some volume. Since then I have heard
them repeated occasionally from Baptist and
Methodist pulpits. Some men know a good
thing when they see it.
I close by giving hearty thanks to thirty-
six near relatives who came in during the
evening of January 23, 1899. Their ages
ranged from three years to threescore and
T 11 avk always believed in Jesus Christ
and offered prayers unto the Father of all in
his name. I have never seen one day when
I objected to his precepts or any of his
instructions. I accept every sentence in
the Apostles' Creed. I hope the Church
will never add another word to it. St. Au-
gustine had not lived when some ancient
yttyhr* put down the final stop. Notice how
it closes, and then see if you quite under-
stand me. You will find it in our baptismal
service. But I did not make a public pro-
fession of religion and unite with the Church
until I was full seventeen years old. What
caused the delay? Calvinism — nothing else.
I encountered it in my seventh year. Aunt
Jane Temple taught our class in the Sunday
school. And forasmuch as there was no
"Sunday school literature" (<<> no-mine) in
those days, we read the New Test anient and
recited the Shorter Catechism. She rather
gave preference to the Catechism, because
she believed it to be a perfect and lucid ex-
planation of the doctrines of grace. In due
time came the Confession of Faith. Moloch
help us! I believe it is Swedenborg who
somewhere describes seeing John Calvin in
heaven. He was sitting in a dark grotto
meditating on the decrees of God. May he
never visit our world again!
When I saw those lonely chambers con-
nected with Westminster Abbey, where it is
said the Confession and the Catechisms were
devised and formulated, and when I wor-
shiped in Calvin's own church at Geneva,
and saw the gloomy house where he lived,
all these sad youthful experiences passed
before me. The sermon we heard was in
the French language, the native tongue of
If I could find a journal kept in 1840, it
would read very much on this wise: "Old
Pleasant Forest Church, near Campbell's
Station, founded 179G, by Missionary Balcb.
First Sunday in January, heard Rev. Andrew
Vance on the sovereignty of God. Spent
the afternoon reading Baxter's ' Call to the
1 nconverted.' Second Sunday, heard Mr.
Vance on the omnipotence of God. .Read
Doddridge's ' Rise and Progress of Religion
in the Soul ' in the afternoon and at night.
Third Sunday, heard Mr. Vance on the jus-
tice of God. Read Law's ' Serious Call ' in
the evening. Fourth Sunday, heard our pas-
tor again, one hour and a half, on the joys
of the elect. In the evening read Baxter's
' Saint's Everlasting Rest.' During this
time I was present when the dear old man
made a pastoral visit to one of his dying
members. He seated himself by her bed-
side, and drew forth from his side pocket a
well-worn 'yellow plush paper,' and dis-
coursed to the old lady on the perfect safety
of God's elect."
.Ml the gospel — I mean the preaching — I
heard from our professors at "Washington
was in the same scholastic and doctrinal
style. That was a memorable day when Dr.
Doak delivered his sermon on John iii.
V). "When be came to the second clause.
''that whosoever bclieveth in him should
not perish, but have everlasting life,'' he
II E MIX IS G EX CE S. 15
expended the full force of his learning 1 ,
logic, and eloquence to prove that none but
the elect would believe. The Methodists
decided that the sermon must be answered.
Hex Elbert F Sevier was selected as the
champion of Arminianism. He came over
to Earnest's Chapel, one mile from the col-
lege, and was greeted by a vast audience.
His text was John iii. 16. When he came
to the words "whosoever believeth in him
should not perish, but have everlasting life,"
he proved that it is a universal affirmative
proposition, sustained by the whole Xew
Testament. Sevier was at his best. A war
horse curveting upon a meadow was never
in better trim. That day I bade a final adieu
Rev. Elbert F Sevier was a direct de-
scendant of the old governor of Tennessee.
He was one of the few college-bred men in
the Methodist ministry of those days — a
man of wealth and distinction far above the
ordinary I am indebted to him beyond
anything I am able to state in this reminis-
cence. When he was old and lived in such
1(3 /, , /;i//.\7Kr/:\r/.',s'.
elegant style, there was no hotel in Knox-
ville for me if Sevier knew I was there.
The Reformed Churches of Switzerland
and Holland and the Presbyterians of Scot-
land and North America can present to the
historian and the philosopher a membership
as intelligent and devout as the human race
has ever produced. Can any one inform me
how such a doctrine as their Confessions
teach can be held by such a people? I once
put this question to Rev Dr. Anderson, of
St. Louis. He confessed he was unable to
explain. And I never expect to spend a
few years among a nobler people than those
around Washington College.
The tuition fee at our best country school
fifty years ago was ten dollars a year. At
Washington we paid thirty dollars for ten
months. Board was eight dollars a month —
not quite as much as my street car fare at
Many of the young men of the Holston
Conference began to " exercise in public "
at Lenoir's camp ground. You will find
the place at the eastern edge of Roane Coun-
ty, on Muddy Creek. It was fortunate for
this primitive place of worship that at the
opening of the nineteenth century every in-
fluential man in the neighborhood built a
tent, notably William B. Lenoir, Esq. He
was a native of North Carolina and a grad-
uate of Chapel Hill. Though often solicited
and " called out," he had not the slightest
inclination to public life. His time and tal-
ents and energy were all devoted to the man-
agement of the largest estate in East Ten-
nessee. Emerson says: "A gentleman is
quiet, a lady is serene." He must have
known Squire Lenoir and his wife.
I will venture to name his sons in the fol-
lowing order : Albert, William, Thomas,
Avery, Frank, Ballard, and Israel. Each
one of these was trained and graduated at
some university or college, not with a view
to professional life or to politics, but that he
might become an intelligent citizen. "Why
not? I suppose that it is not absolutely
necessary for a young man of wealth to re-
main an ignoramus. One of these young
Lenoirs did stray off for a little while into
politics, and another took on a medical
course in Philadelphia. Besides this family,
the Wintins and Grants, the Praters and
Powells, all had camps at "Old Muddy
Creek." Their sons and daughters went
forward for prayers, and in due time were
happily converted and brought into the
Church. No traveling evangelist ever stood
before them and shouted: " Xow, all you
that want to be religious, hold up your
hands;" or, "all that want to lead a better
life send in your cards." Notice, I am not
presuming to say which is the better tk meth-
od." But if you insist on a hint, you are re-
ferted to Acts x. 44; xi. ir>.
When I was pastor of his family Bishop
Soule never tired relating to me his expe-
rience and practice in New England before
the year 1806. He rode around his large
circuit or district, preached every day, con-
fidently expecting the Holy Ghost to fall
upon the people, and was rarely disappoint-
ed. Then and there he held class meeting
and received members on probation. He
never saw a protracted meeting until that
memorable one in Green Street Church,
New York, 1806.
Brother Rufus M. Stephens was our preach-
er in charge once or twice. He was homely
and slovenly, but never failed to reach his
appointments and treat his auditors to some
of the wildest sallies of eloquence that ever
reached human ears. Orator uascitur non
fit. If he were stationed in Nashville now,
he would visit the Publishing House every
morning. I should like to see the Agents
or Connectional officers escape him by " mov-
ing up." He would find them. He wanted
nothing but listeners. We are indebted to
Hudson for a character whose "soul ran
dry through a leak at his mouth."
Rev- Timothy Sullens occasionally left his
fine pulpit in Knoxville and came down to
20 /.'/■: .i / /.v /. s* f • /-;.vc ^ n.
Muddy Creek. He was young, handsome,
grand, exceedingly fond of English broad-
cloth and velvet. He sought no knowledge
outside of Arminian theology, but he could
preach that with captivating eloquence and
tremendous power. He delighted in long,
strong sweeps through the realms of imagi-
nation and fancy. A more consecrated man
I have not known.
Perhaps in some far future land
We yet may meet, we yet may dwell.
Dr. Thomas Stringfield frequently came to
see us. He was every inch a Kentuckian,
tall and straight as an arrow. He enjoyed a
connectional reputation. He had filled the
country with religious tracts and controver-
sial pamphlets, "manifold and thick as
leaves in Tallambrosa," and had edited the
Clirlstlav, Advocate four years. His preach-
ing was clear and instructive to the last de-
gree. .Nothing could exceed his hospital-
ity at his ample estate and in his delightful
home near Strawberry 1 Mains. His daujrh-
ter, Mrs. Butler, is known to every intclli-
gent woman in Southern Methodism. His
granddaughter, Miss Butler, spent several
years of student life at Belmont College.
She has a genius for music. Some people
know where to educate their children.
When I am traveling eastward the rail-
road from Chattanooga to Bristol runs di-
rectly through the neighborhood I have been
describing. From Lenoir Station to Con-
cord is the charmed spot, the enchanted
ground. I sit on the left-hand side of the
car and keep silent. To me every inch has
its luster, and every moldering stone is a
chronicle. A few years ago I got off at the
way station where the Wintins once lived.
Here I hired a horse and rode three miles
northward, to old Poplar Grove plantation,
where my father's children were all born and
reared. There stood the old house yet, but
a new one had been erected by the prosper-
ous Dutchman who owned the place. I rode
immediately to the family graveyard, and sat
for hours. After awhile the old farmer came
to leai*n something of the stranger. I point-
ed to the tombstone of the longest grave
and read: "• Sacred to the memory of ( 'aplain
John Calvin Young•.' ,
"Carrying coals to Newcastle," so Editor
Lyons thinks while I am telling him about
the Lenoir settlement and neighborhood.
His wife was a daughter of xVlbert Lenoir.
Brushy Creek Camp Ground was not
many miles east of Jonesboro. liev W G.
Brownlow was a tent holder there. His hos-
pitality knew no bounds until the last vis-
itor was fed and cared for. At the be«-in-
ning of the camp meeting* he gave us one
or two sermons, so called. They were loud,
rough animadversions, with a text at the
top. So it seemed to us then; but com-
pared to some harangues we have heard at
the Tabernacle in cultivated Xashville, they
were models of homiletics. We have learned
at last what the masses want and enjoy
When Brownlow used to come down to the
college to make us a Whig speech I always
managed to entertain him at my room.
When 1 happened to be in Jonesboro he in-
vited me to his home. If any one asked
him at table or in the presence of his family
about the latest religious or political sensa-
tion, he invariably replied : " See the next
issue of the Jonesboro Whig." His wife was
a model of gentleness and intelligence, and
his children were quiet, obedient, and stu-
dious. Family prayers were attended morn-
ing - and evening with noticeable regularity
And this is that same Brownlow who after-
wards became Governor of Tennessee and
died a member of the United States Senate.
Most of the books in the library where J am
now writing were rescued by him from the
Federal authorities because the blank pages
bore my name.
It would be difficult to write much about
Brushy Creek Camp Ground without bring-
ing in the Taylor family. They were the
most prominent people in Ipper East Ten-
Gen. James P. Taylor built the first brick
house in Carter County outside of Eliza-
beth ton. In the year 1816 there came in
upon them a scholarly youth named Young,
fresh from Orange County, N". C. They
honored him, or dishonored him, with a coun-
try dance. Among the maidens who were
invited was Lucinda Ilyder, daughter of a
Dutch farmer close by. They '"tripped the
light fantastic toe " until the awfully late
hour of 10 p.m. The Carolina boy and the
Tennessee girl saw each other frequently
after this. In due time they were married.
They baptized four of us. I am the young-
est, and the only one remaining.
The General's oldest son was ^Nathaniel
G. Taylor. He graduated at Washington,
and afterwards entered the theological semi-
nary at Princeton, under Dr. Archibald Al-
exander, lux mmidi. Calvinism was too
strong for him; he threw it up. He could
not believe that the "reprobates" will suffer
forever in order to manifest either the jus-
tice or the glory of God. So he came home,
joined the Methodist Church, and began to
"hold forth the word of life" at Brushy
Creek. For several years he remained an
unordained local preacher. It was during
this time that he represented his district
more than once in the United States Con-
gress. He married a distant relative of
mine. On his bridal tour he spent some
time at our home in Lower East Tennessee.
Hon. ]ST. G. Taylor has two sons, A. A.
Taylor and Robert L. Taylor. Both are
lawyers and invincible politicians. Both
have been in Congress, and ''Our Bob" has
been Governor of Tennessee three full terms.
In Xashville we call him the " apostle of
sunshine." I hope to sign a diploma for
each of his three daughters. Taken one
after another, the Taylor family has made
twenty - eight canvasses for high places.
They have succeeded in fourteen, all within
Dr. Charles Collins, President of Emory
and Henry College, visited this popular
camp ground occasionally The people never
tired of saying that Dr. Wilbur Fisk select-
ed him from among all the graduates of the
Wesley an University as the most suitable
person to inaugurate the new college enter-
prise in Western Virginia. His personal
appearance and dress and manner were those
of a cultivated Eastern gentleman. His ser-
mons were scholarly and orthodox. After
several years he was called to the presidenev
of Dickinson College? in Pennsylvania. Fi-
nallv he closed out as President of the State
Female College, Memphis, Teim. They
said that he was fond of money Strange
that he did not accumulate a fortune, but
lived in moderate circumstances all his days.
It may be that it required some money to rear
and educate a family
Dr. E. E. Wiley came also. He was young,
handsome, fluent; and when he preached we
were all filled with a holy influence. Eight
or ten General Conferences opened and ad-
journed, but no connectional position was
ever offered Dr. Wiley. How rich we are in
About this time I lived several months in
Dr. Brabson's office at Rheatown, reading
Wistar's anatomy, Dungleson's physiology,
and sundry other enormous books. I was
attracted to medicine then for the same rea-
son that I like geology now- I have always
felt an interest in the planet and the man
that lives on it. About the time my old
preceptor began to risk me out among his
patients on wet days and cold nights Rev
Creed Fulton persuaded me to take charge of
Rogersville Circuit, a small scope of country
with twenty-eight regular preaching places.
This was filly-four years ago. I venture to
call Dr. Palmore's attention to the fact that
since then preaching the gospel has heen my
cocatioii, and that while making a tour of
the Russian Empire in 1891 it did not occur
to me that I was a farmer, although I am un-
fortunate enough to own two small planta-
tions in Arkansas. Indeed, my Russian
guide and interpreter seemed to manifest an
unusual interest in the fact that he was con-
ducting a Protestant minister from Xorth
I) i king the seven months on Kogersville
Circuit I learned the truth and value of that
oft-quoted saying 1 of Dr. Chalmers: "If you
want to get into a man's heart, go into his
house." Rich or poor, he expects a pastoral
visit. Many years afterwards, at First
Church, St. Louis, and at McKendree
Church, Nashville, I had no occasion to
alter this opinion.
At the western appointment on the cir-
cuit there lived a scion of one of our most
distinguished families in the early history of
Tennessee. Mr. Cocke Mas the son of Wil-
liam Cocke, one of our first Senators in the
United States Congress (1796), and the fa-
ther of John Cocke, Esq., and Col. William
M. Cocke, who died a few years ago in
Nashville. John had been a classmate of
mine over at the college, so whenever I
came to this appointment he took charge of
me. Directly it was said, to my detriment,
all over the neighborhood: " Brother Youn^r
is too fond of great folks."
Then I began pastoral visiting, and met
with a youth named Frank K. AYilliams,
whose friendship I am still delighted to en-
joy. Is it not somewhat remarkable that
these two youths were destined to spend al-
most half their lives in Xashville, to buy
lots adjoining each other in Mt. Olivet Cem-
tery, and to lie side by side when we " shuf-
fle off this mortal coil?" It was also a no-
ticeable and happy coincidence that Hon.
William M. Cocke, with his " blushing hon-
ors thick upon him," was a guest on my
At Lauderback's schoolhouse they com-
plained that T did not preach u loud enough. "
At another place a thin old maid loved to
hear me because I preached " so much th.it
was not gospel." At Kogersville they did
not like my blue cloth clothes; so I bought
a black frock, Prince Mbert, sic apjxllahui.
At Russell's schoolhouse the brethren com-
plained thai T always slopped at the same
plaee. There was too much truth in this.
At last a queenly old lady declared that the
poor ought to be visited, but that Brother
Young- was " a little too fond of them."
These statements are not specially digni-
fied in the eye of reason, but I shall scatter
them all through these short chapters, hop-
ing that they may be taken as useful hints
by young theologues.
When I took charge of the circuit I had
been just one week out of Dr. Brabson's
office. I did not have a single sermon; so
the first day I "held forth" on Romans i.
16; the next, on Psalm ciii. 1. I have been
"holding forth" ever since.
Our presiding elder was Rev- Creed Ful-
ton. He was certainly the most gifted man
of that day- All knowledge seemed to be
at his tongue's end, and he displayed it as if
it had been the pastime of his youth. Some
years ago I heard the Archbishop of York
in the presence of the British Parliament.
The occasion was the Queen's natal jubilee.
He had not spoken ten minutes until I was
reminded of Creed Pulton. Thought I to
myself: " If Fulton were alive and a dig-
liitary of the Church of England, he could
dispense divinity from lawn sleeves fully
equal to the Archbishop of York."
Our elder was a small man, with a cliff-
like brow. He wore black cloth, cut in the
clerical regulation style. I admired him so
much that I was unable to discover his im-
At the Conference in Athens, 1845, I was
admitted on trial into the traveling connec-
tion. This was the jubilee week of my
ecclesiastical life. Here I actually saw a
Methodist bishop, James O. Andrew In
his sermon on Sunday he moved off with
fluency and power for about thirty minutes;
then he began to flag, and flagged on to the
close. I have heard him frequently since,
and he always did precisely the same way.
But he was a historic character the South
will never forget. His fame deepens with
the roll of years; bis monument casts its
shadow to the end of time. AVith Soule
and Andrew in the lead, we got away from
tbc Yankees. Thanks be unto the Lord!
^tniiiel I'atton was the wise man at this
Conference, and at all other sessions while
he lived. James Atkins, the senior, was at
his zenith. He had been stationed in Knox-
ville, and was now made a presiding* elder.
This was fame enough in the Holston of
those days. Everybody seemed to fear Cat-
lett and Fleming and McAnally They had
been grand old mountain presiding elders,
and were not to be trifled with. The pop-
ular and promising young man was W. Gr.
E. Cunnyngham; but, gifted as he was, we
little dreamed of the volumes of Sunday
school literature that were ready and wait-
ing to drip from the point of his pen.
At the close of the session I was read out
for Dandridge Circuit. It had only thirteen
preaching places. We all journeyed off on
horseback, with an enormous pair of saddle-
bags underneath us. Those were palmy old
days. Money to throw at birds? Each un-
married man received one hundred dollars a
year, plus socks and yards of gray jeans.
The married man was allowed two hundred
dollars a year, and a moiety for each child,
plus many other little things.
On Dandridge Circuit .special attention
was given to protrated meetings: how to an-
nounce them; how to conduct them; what
u methods " were best in a revival of religion.
Lord .Nelson's tactics in naval warfare will
give a hint of the conclusion to which I then
came in spiritual warfare : " Put your guns
in front of the enemy, and fire broadsides
until you or he goes to the bottom."
At the close of this year I bade adieu to
my beloved East Tennessee and traveled
westward on horseback.
It is difficult to tell why any young- man
should want to leave East Tennessee, for it
is certainly the garden spot of the world.
I am perfectly candid in this statement, and
arrive at my conclusion in the following
The continent of North America is the
future home of the most intelligent and the
most powerful population on the face of the
planet. Its coast line, indented with gulfs
and bays, harbors and inlets, invites all the
world to come. How different from the
coastlines of South America, Africa, or Aus-
tralia! The mingling of races improves the
human constitution in the general issue. On
the Xorth American continent an admixture
of blood, such as the history of man never
furnished before, is in progress. "All kin-
dreds and nations and tongues under the
whole heavens" are to mingle in this part of
the ISTew World and work out a final result
in the physical, mental, and moral condition
of humanity as perfect as the present con-
stitution of things will allow Our moun-
tain ranges, fluviatile systems, vast plains
and valleys, offer to the world an agricultural
country equaled nowhere else. Now it is
well known and universally admitted that
the best part of the continent is covered by
the United States. Of all these States, Ten-
nessee has the most desirable location, and
the people of the eastern section so far
have been the most influential. Blounts,
Seviers, Cockes, Taylors, and Doaks all be-
gan their careers in East Tennessee, to whom
may be added Andrew Jackson and An-
drew Johnson. When I left, the four great
political speakers of the State were to be
found in the eastern portion : Spencer Jar-
nigan, William T. Senter, Landon C. Ilaynes,
and X. G. Taylor. Among the connectional
officers of our Church there are from the
soil of the llolston country Dr. K. E. IIoss.
Dr. James Atkins, and D. M. Smith, Book
If the average Kast Trnnesseean is ;i pro-
vincial, he is also a model patriot. "That is
the way we do in our end of the State," is
his closing argument. If he would travel
from home, subscribe for about six first-
class newspapers, and put a few hundred
volumes in his library, it might narrow his
purse, but it would broaden him in every
After Dr. Durbin had finished his exten-
sive European and Oriental travels, and had
published his " Observations," he said to me :
" If I had nothing to do but to exist, I
should pass the remainder of my days in
Palestine or East Tennessee."
It was earl} r in September, 1846, when I
took leave of my mother and other members
of the family, and started on my trip West.
About the close of the first day I rode right
up to a country camp meeting, conducted
by a young brother, Cunnyngham. The
next morning I preached and came out to
the Kemmers', on top of the mountain. I
had been requested to take Miss Ivemmer
home, but another young gentleman seemed
anxious to accompany her I found the es-
tablishment an ample one — plenty of stable
room and servants in each other's way
And forasmuch as I was never unwilling to
rest, I spent a day or more. Before I left,
Miss Kemmer and I understood each other
perfectly well. On the next June I returned
and found her trunks packed and her wait-
ing maid in readiness. For more than thir-
ty-two years we sojourned together. Then
'Tis welcome death ; thy freezing kiss
Emancipates — the rest is bliss.
My first Sunday in Middle Tennessee was
spent at Sparta, where I preached twice.
Anthony Dibrell found me at a hotel, and
of course I stayed there no longer. " Given
to hospitality" is a Christian virtue. Mr
Dibrell was afterwards Treasurer of the
State, and that plain, quiet son, George, was
afterwards to become a major general in a
war between the States, and after that to
represent his district several sessions in the
United States Congress. When his chap-
lain preached to his command, standing be-
tween two tallow candles, one of his most
devout listeners was the commander in
chief. I presume that there is no family in
the middle section of our State better known
than the Dibrells, of Sparta.
Then I came to Lebanon, and fell into the
hands of Rev. Finch P. Scruggs and Calvin
E. Jackson, Esq. Elegance illustrated, is
my only remark.
At Gallatin Robert Hatton, father and
son, took charge of me, and allowed me to
preach in town and country whenever I
At Nashville you should have seen me
"arrive and register' 1 at the old Sewanee
Hotel. That night, forty years afterwards,
when I arrived at the St. Pancras Station,
in London, and with my family drove to the
Inns of Court Hotel, I did not feel half so
I soon discovered that the Tennessee Con-
ference of those days belonged to four men —
A. L. P Green, J B. McFerrin, John W
Hanner, and F. E. Pitts. Others were com-
ing on — Neely, Erwin, Walker, and the like.
Another, now filling the public eye of
40 /,7;i//.\7xr/:.\r /•>'.
Nashville, was ordained a deacon at this
time. After a lew years he married and re-
moved to the Alabama Conference, in which
he was a pastor at Montgomery and at Mobile.
Thence he was sent to Xew Orleans, after-
wards to Kansas City and St. Louis. lie is
our oldest and most distinguished "giraffe/'
In his preaching he combines the strength of
the lion Avith the flight of the eagle. The
McKendree people are not ringing the stee-
ple bell just now: they have one in the pul-
pit that draws better — Rev John Ma-
1^ the year 1846 Dr. John "W. II aimer oc-
cupied the front rank not only in the Ten-
nessee Conference but in the whole South-
ern Church. lie was the most gifted orator
and the most learned sermonizer. If he
could do anything else, I never heard of it.
If I were called upon to give a list of the
eloquent preachers, as I have heard them,
their names would come in the following
order: Pere Hyacinthe, Charles II. Spur-
geon, Joseph Parker, and John "W Hanner.
People were fond of saying that he plagia-
rized. Do not call me in as a witness. I
have heard him scores of times, and am sure
that I never heard him repeat a sermon or
use a paragraph in which I could see a pla-
Hanner was a country lad, and had no op-
portunity for mental training. The illiterate
youth joined the Conference early in life,
and began to develop immediately. He was
small in stature, and wore loose-fitting - black
clothes. lie had no home well fitted up, no
library filled with hundreds of volumes, al-
though he was amply able to have both.
lie never said a foolish thing* in the pul-
pitn or a wise thing out of it. All people
sought his company when they wanted a
genuine, healthy laugh. In the pulpit and
out of it every word was pronounced accord-
ing to Webster, and every sentence Avas
shaped in the mold of Murray.
In his old age, and when the blaze of his
popularity was slightly abated, Dr. Hanner
was slandered. Xo well-read man was sur-
prised at this. St. Chrysostom, the most elo-
quent preacher in the early ages of the
Church, was slandered and deposed. Tn
consequence thereof he died among" the
mountains of Armenia. John Wesley was
slandered, but he had the coolness and the
courage to ride straight through it all over
the liritish Isles, and become the founder of
Methodism. Dr. John Harris, President of
Xew College in London, was the most pop-
ular religious writer of the first half of the
nineteenth century He was slandered, and
actually died under the cloud of disgrace.
But in a little while the slanderer died also,
and in death confessed that every word was
false. Dr. Hanner's fame is as sacred to-
day as if the pen of the slanderer had never
At the opening of the Conference session
Rev. Fountain E. Pitts closed the great re-
vival in McKendree Church. The meeting
had occupied the three closing- months of
his pastorate. Over five hundred members
had been added to the Church, among whom
was William R. Elliston, afterwards so long
treasurer of our missionary society. As I
was his guest during the Conference, of
course I heard much of the wonderful re-
vival. The pastor conducted it, the pastor
did all the preaching, the pastor led the
congregational singing, etc. Fountain E.
Pitts was the man.
I helped to build the Tabernacle; I have
attended regularly every protracted meeting
held therein. I am prepared to say, very
deliberately, that if you will sum up the net
results to our Church of all these meetings
you will not find five hundred good, solid
members. The other denominations can
speak for themselves. The thousands that
have been paid to evangelists in the Taber-
nacle might have been much better expend-
ed through the Board of Domestic Missions.
~No greater revivalist ever appeared among
us than F. E. Pitts. He died in Louisville,
May, 1874. Is it not somewhat remarkable
that no famous revivalist has ever been ele-
vated to the episcopacy among us? Ought
I to except Bishop Marvin?
Dr. A. L. P Green preached the " open-
ing sermon," as we then called it. It was
on the line of the "Christian evidences,"
and proved very clearly that we are not fol-
lowing " cunningly devised fables." Dr.
Green was a calm, solid, wise man. Take
him anywhere — in the back porch of his
country home, filled with visitors during the
summer; at a country camp meeting, where
audiences rose to their feet under the magic
spell of his descriptive preaching; at a Gen-
eral Conference, where his logic bore down
A. L. P. GREEN".
RE.UIMKt 'KSVKH. 45
all opposition; at a summer resort, where the
gamesters stopjied to listen to hisanecdoctes;
at a literary round table — Dr. Green was the
most interesting- man I ever saw- He died
in the summer of 1874.*
It is exceeedingly fortunate that in all
deliberative bodies there is one man who is
always "ready to proceed." In the Tennes-
see Conference Dr. John B. McFerrin was
that gentleman. Foremost, midst, and last, he
was there. Anywhere, anyhow, " any when,"
you knew where to find Belisarius.*
About the close of the session one Harry
Hill, a rich man, presented Bishop Andrew
with a new barouche and a fresh young
team, whereupon the good bishop invited
me to become his traveling companion, inti-
mating that he might finally station me in
Columbus, Miss. I understood the old gen-
tleman most perfectly. He wanted a young
and stalwart coachman. He missed his man.
I had never harnessed a barouche horse in
* Read " Celebrities and Less."
Dr. Green sent for me, and talked the
whole matter over, and then advised me to
take a little country station in the bounds of
the Dover District. He also counseled me
to tk stick to my books." " Called to preach
— called to study "
I must not fail to mention a handsome en-
tertainment given to a few young gentlemen
of the learned professions by Mrs. Washing-
ton Barrow- Her husband had been Amer-
ican Minister to Portugal. They were both
fresh from the "Court of Braganza."
About the year 1845 an attempt was
made by the rector of the parish in Clarks-
ville to gather a small congregation at Cum-
berland Iron Works. It was a failure.
There was not a drop of Episcopal blood in
the village. Hon. John Bell, Col. Andrew
Irwin, Maj. Perkins, Mr. Barnes, and their
wives, were Presbyterians. Col. Lewis, Dr.
Cobb, Squire Caldwell, Mr. Cockrill, and
their families, were Methodists. So we took
charge of the handsome little church, gath-
ered up all the prayer books and packed
them away carefully- Our services were
simple, straightforward, and evangelical,
such as Methodists and Presbyterians like.
In this pulpit we maintained a stationed
preacher until the fall of Fort Donelson and
the destruction of the village. The place
was sought after by the young men of the
Conference. The white people wanted Sun-
day school and only one sermon on Sunday.
At night we preached to a vast congregation
of negroes. This left ample time for mis-
cellaneous reading and study, and 1 venture
to close this paragraph by stating that Ave
were amply paid for our services.
Col. George T. Lewis had a talent for con-
necting usefulness with pleasure. lie was
fond of riding and driving through the vast
coaling grounds belonging to the iron works.
Sometimes he would stop and select a site
for a protracted meeting. Somebody would
be employed to take rough plank and put up
a little platform for the preacher and bench-
es for the people. Here we would hold a
two days' meeting. AVe had twenty-four
converts at one of these.
It was in this vast coaling ground that we
found a young, illiterate country girl. AYe
invited her to visit us. We loaned her mag-
azines and books. In less than two years
she was a paid contributor to Godev's '• La-
Full many a flower is born t<> blush unseen
And waste its sweetness.
In the fall of ISIS I picked up my wife
and child and went to Columbia, by appoint-
ment from Bishop Paine. Maury County
was at its best. Polks, Pillows, and Frier-
sons galore. The Morgans and Mayeses, the
Youngs and Porters, the Xelsons and Nichol-
sons were among the pillar families of our
Church. Maury was not only the best-cul-
tivated county in the State, but Columbia
was the Athens of the South. Jackson Col-
lege, Ravenscroft College, Episcopal Insti-
tute, Athenaeum, and the Tennessee Confer-
ence Female College were all located here.
Many distinguished gentlemen lived here —
Bishop James H. Otey, of the diocese of
Tennessee; "William H. Polk, American
Minister to the kingdom of Naples; A. O.
P. Nicholson, future Chief Justice of Ten-
nessee; and James K. Polk, President of
the United States. His house was a small
one-story frame building that might have
rented for three hundred a year. His moth-
er lived in a small, unpretentious brick. On
account of the religious affiliations of her
son and her daughter, the old lady came to
my church frequently She finally came to
the conclusion that the young- man might
learn to preach very well if he would only
"use papers in the pulpit." All the pastors
in the city "used papers" — "drowsy tink-
ling^ that lulled the distant folds."
It has been my good fortune to see some
remarkable processions. Once when a crown
prince and a party of twenty-five noblemen
were received by one hundred thousand of
the people, and afterwards when the Sultan
of Turkey was accompanied from his kiosk
to the mosque of Santa Sophia for morning
prayers by ten thousand of the flower of the
Ottoman army; but not one of these was
more imposing than that vast procession
which moved from the public square of Co-
lumbia toward Spring- Hill in order to
receive the late President of the United
States, returning to his quiet little home. 1
suppose that every presentable carriage in
the county was in that line, that every su-
perb horse in Middle Tennessee was in some
one of the cavalry companies. The proces-
sion was over two miles in length. The
bands of music were "ordered on." On
our arrival in Columbia the President's open
carriage was driven to his mother's front
door. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow made the re-
ception speech. Polk replied. These were
his last words: "My race is run, my career
is ended, my sun is set forever." At this
moment the door was opened, and the illus-
trious son was in the arms of his mother.
The next day, at his request, the clergy
called. Polk was dressed precisely like an
English bishop. In a few weeks he moved
to Nashville, Avhere he died. The English
statesmen are fond of saying that no Presi-
dent of the United States of America ever
sent out such able messages. He was bur-
ied from McKendree Church in 1850.
While I was pastor at Columbia I noticed
a youth of about twenty summers who was
disposed to be very useful. He was the son
of a prosperous farmer, and a graduate of
Jackson College. If we wanted a speech at
any juvenile meeting, Ave always called on
him. He studied law under Judge Dilla-
hunty, went to Texas, afterwards to Wel-
lington, Mo. Here he married and was li-
censed to preach. There was one subject
on which Bishop McTyeire and I could al-
ways agree: that Dr. "William M. Leftwich
should have been in the front rank for the
last quarter of a century
Our Church was now considered peaceful
and prosperous. In 1844 the entering wedge
had been driven; in 1845 the disruption had
been completed. In 1846 our first General
Conference had been held and two first-
class bishops had been made: Robert Paine
and "William Capers. The cloud of ecclesi-
astical warfare had gone up, the smoke of
battle had blown away, and the Southern
skies were clear and beautiful.
In the fall of 1850, through the partiality
of Dr. Green, Bishop Capers sent me to
Huntsville, Ala. This appointment was far
above my ability, and, I must say, far above
my ambition. Considering numbers, wealth,
intelligence, and piety, it was one of the
first in Southern Methodism. I was twenty-
six. Forasmuch as there was no parsonage
in some "Rat Row Xo. 2," old Mother Bibb
took charge of us. In her vast establish-
ment we had " ample scope and verge
enough." She was the widow of Thomas
Bibb, first Governor of Alabama.
In her parlors I met certain young people
whose literary attainments and whose con-
versational powers are still memorable. A
grandson, T. Bibb Bradley, had graduated
at Union University under old Dr. Knott,
and had loitered about Boston and New
York until he seemed to be on familiar terms
with all the young prose writers and poets
of the day- Edwin P Whipple, N. P. "Wil-
lis, and Edgar Allan Poe were his favorites.
His descriptions of them were more edifying
than the reading of Griswold, that "old dry
nurse" of the American prose writers and
Another young prodigy was James
Brookes, a Tennesseean. He afterwards
graduated at the Union Theological Semi-
nary in Xew York, and, early in life, suc-
ceeded Dr. X L. Rice in the Walnut Street
Presbyterian Church, St. Louis. The grim
old fellows prophesied empty pews. The re-
sult was that the vestibule could not hold
the overflow. The history of heroes is the
history of young men. Everybody in St.
Louis now remembers the late Rev. James
Brookes, D.D., LL.D., by far the most elo-
quent and successful pastor that ever trod
the ecclesiastical stage of the "future great
There also met with us occasionally a
granddaughter of Mother Bibb, who, but for
the trammels of wealth, might have been the
equal of VugustaJ Evans. Wealth is not
generally beneficial to people of genius. It
suits that other class who take pleasure in
building - schools for the blind, in establish-
ing- Randall Cole Industrial Schools, in pa} r -
ing 1 for Mattie Cupples Orphan Homes, and
supporting" Peabody Xormal Colleges. The
latter is the most useful and Christlike class.
A mere youth from Center College, Ivy.,
came in on us twice a year. He afterwards
graduated at Princeton, but entered the
ministry among - us. Dr. J ~\Y Lewis spent
more than half his life in St. Louis.
No small city ever owed more to its loca-
tion than Huntsville. The earth rises up
gradually hundreds of feet above the finest
spring - that bubbles from the face of the
earth. The fountain of the Virgin that
flows from the eastern base of Mount Mo-
riah, the apostle's fountain on the way to
Jericho, are mere imitations when compared
to it. Nature and art have made the place
so attractive that it has been a sort of hive
for elderly people of distinction and wealth.
Chief Justice Parsons, Leroy Pope Walker,
Senator Jere Clemons, C. C. Clay, father
and son, and Mrs. Jane Hamilton Childs
were among- the personages who frightened
me so dreadfully on Sunday mornings.
These had all graduated in 'Washington eti-
quette, and therefore did not disturb me bv
their presence at the evening service. They
The I hints vi lie Female College was es-
tablished in the latter part of 1851. This
suggested a visit to the session of the Geor-
gia Conference in search of a president.
There 1 met Dr. George F. Pierce. lie was
remarkably handsome, amazingly eloquent,
and companionable to the last degree. There
I met also a young man of about two years'
standing, lie preached one morning on
Samson and the Philistines. I saw then
that he was an admirer of strength, lie is
now one of the ten pillars under Southern
Methodism — Bishop Key Old Dr. Loviek
Pierce managed the Conference as easily as
one waving a willow wand.
During the second year my people in
Iluntsville were gracious enough to liberate
me during 'Inly and August, that I might
make a tour of the I'nion. So I gathered
REMIX IXC EXCEK. 57
all my gold together and took leave. If I
were a rhetorician, I should undertake to de-
scribe the happenings of this summer. At
least twice a week I heard a preacher of con-
tinental reputation. Every one preached
Dr. John Lord, of Buffalo, interested me in
various ways. He wore buff pantaloons and
vest to match, a blue swallow-tail coat with
metal buttons, a ruffled shirt with an enor-
mous pin. In other words, he was exactly
in the style of the elderly gentlemen of those
daj^s. A priestly garment he would not wear.
He refused to advertise his religion or his pro-
fession by the cut of his clothes. After he
served them many years, his congregation
concluded to get rid of him in the usual
Presbyterian style. Dr. Lord's successor
came. He had the canonical garments, but
he did not have "the action and the utter-
ance and the power of speech to stir men's
blood." He cleaned out the church decent-
ly. The old pastor was brought back. I
heard him in the summer time, "when the
people are out of town," but I was very
58 A , /;.l//.V/.sr/;vr/:,s'.
thankful to get a scat in the gallery A
hearing ear comes to the speaking tongue.
Lebanon, Tenn., is just large enough lor
a university town. The professors are scat-
tered all over the delightful place. Students
board in every family- Intelligence is like
the rays of the sun. Religion is respected
and enjoyed. The churches are filled at
each service. Congregational singing is
fashionable, and the Church members pray
in public. At the close of the year 18.">3,
when I expected to be returned, I received
a letter from Bishop Andrew, from which I
make a quotation: "Unless you consider it
oppression, I shall transfer you to the St.
Louis Conference, and station you in First
I did not consider myself oppressed then,
nor have I ever been oppressed since. My
bishops have never been oppressors. They
have always been Christian gentlemen who
understood their business.
Our famous cities have usually been built
in our great valleys. Thebes, Memphis, and
Cairo in the Valley of the Nile; Babylon
and Nineveh in the Valley of the Euphrates
and the Tigris; Rome on the banks of the
Tiber; and London on the Thames. The
rich agriculturists and manufacturers live in
the valleys. One thousand feet above these
may be found the vast multitude of average
farmers; one thousand feet higher still, herds-
men and shepherds; above these, hunters and
We are not surprised that Humboldt se-
lected St. Louis as the future great city of
the world. He knew that the Mississippi
and its tributaries formed the most exten-
sive fluviatile system on earth. He knew
that the Mississippi Valley contained more
arable acres than any other valley on the
globe. He saw that St. Louis had a central
location and a back country that reached to
60 ri;mi.x isc i:\ces.
"sundown." So his selection was made ac-
cording to the laws of science and com-
merce, and with all history to back him.
London and Xew York may lead for the
next five hundred or a thousand years; but
St. Louis is the "future great city" With-
in the last fifty years it has grown with con-
stant regularity from one hundred thousand
to its present enormous size. Everywhere
in St. Louis to-day you can hear and see the
work of growth going on around you.
At the time I landed the city had a num-
ber of pastors with national reputation. Ev-
erybody had heard of Dr. Xathan L. Rice,
pastor of the Walnut Street Presbyterian
Church. lie was the most learned debater
on controversial subjects our country has
yet produced. He was put forward by the
Protestants of Kentucky and Ohio to con-
duct the great debate on Romanism with
Archbishop Purcell. He was the champion
selected to meet Alexander Campbell on the
subject of baptism. I was fortunate enough
to hear him and Orestes A. Brownson, LL.D.,
That oral controversy originated thus:
Dr. Brownson was invited by the Catholics
to deliver a course of lectures in St. Louis.
He came. His first audience numbered
about three thousand. At the close of the
lecture he challenged the crowd to produce
a man who was able to answer his arguments
— he was in search of such an individual.
Instantly a plain man rose up in the middle
of the room, and replied: " Doctor, you need
not travel any farther. I will reply to-mor-
row night in this hall." The debate lasted
Dr Rice edited the St. Louis Presbyte-
rian, preached regularly three times a week,
to which he occasionally added a protracted
meeting in his own church. The Doctor
afterwards went to Chicago on a call of ten
thousand a year, made by McCormick, of
reaper fame. Thence to the Fifth Avenue,
Another clerical magnate was Bishop
Hawkes, of the Diocese of Missouri. He
was descended from the Mohawk tribe, and
claimed to be an Indian octoroon. He was
an oddity from another fact. He was an in-
teresting and graceful cxtemporizer, never
having written fifty sermons in his life. We
did not know then that over in the Church
of England deans and bishops and archbish-
ops were extemporaneous speakers of great
fluency and power. At the close of Edward
Everett's oration on Washington, Hawkes
declared that all the other public speaking-
was child's prattle compared to it.
The most distinguished Methodist divines
of the city were Dr. D. R. McAnally and
Dr. Joseph Boyle. The first was from the
hills of East Tennessee. He had been Pres-
ident of the Female Institute at Knoxville,
and was now editor of the St. Louis Advo-
cate. His editorial career is the longest in
the history of our Church.* Dr. Boyle was
an Eastern man — large, handsome, eloquent,
and rich. A more faithful pastor would be
The lay celebrities were Trusten Polk and
Uriel Wright. Polk was a learned lawyer
Ec-ul "(Wbrities and Li
and a model class leader. When he was
elected Governor of Missouri the smart set
of Jefferson City knew at once that there
would be no inauguration ball. In the place
thereof the distinguished class leader gave
them a banquet of unusual elegance. In a
few days thereafter he was elected to the
United States Senate.* Wright was so elo-
quent and logical that he appeared in all the
great lawsuits. His smallest fee was five
hundred dollars. During one of my pro-
tracted meetings he conducted the public
service for me twice. Why not talk well on
religion? He talked well on many other
I cannot persuade myself to close this
reminiscence without mentioning the names
of two young people who afterwards mar-
ried and lived together with almost perfect
conjugal affection. Samuel Cupples was a
little over twenty years old. He had come
to St. Louis about 1850 to keep books on the
levee. Now he was of the firm of Cupples
* Read " Celebrities and Less."
A: Marston, wooden and willow ware.
Among the young people of First Church
he was in the lead. Whenever work was to
be done you could find him without hunting.
This is that same Samuel Cupples who has
filled his place with marked ability in so many
Annual and General Conferences. Miss Mar-
tha Kells was my constant helper in pro-
tracted meetings. She and I conducted one
for thirty consecutive nights at the First
Church. These two young folks married,
and spent their lives in doing good. They
paid for the Methodist Orphans' Home.
"With all his liberality how Mr. Cupples has
amassed such an enormous fortune as a reg-
ular merchant may be explained by Luke
vi. 38. By all this I mean to say that my
St. Louis friend is a religious layman.
At a General Conference held in St.
Louis in 1850 Dr. Bascom was elected bish-
op, lie held one Conference, and then the
Lord took him on high. He has the reputa-
tion of being the most eloquent man our
Church has yet produced. He was not so in
fact. In 1854 Pierce, Kavanaugh, and Ear-
ly were elevated to the episcopacy. Bishop
Pierce was great and grand in every direc-
tion except one. lie never could learn how
to "bring salt to soup" like Bishop Dog-
gett. Kavanaugh was simple as a child out
of the pulpit, but astonished everybody by
the splendor of his style in it. Early knew
nothing in the books, but everything out of
them. He came to my house in 1855 on his
way to the seat of the St. Louis Conference.
I told him to give himself no trouble, he
should be "personally conducted." So we
traveled the first part of the way by railway,
then by Troy coach, and finally landed at
Springfield in a hired conveyance. The old
gentleman was cheerful and talkative from
start to finish.'"
At the close of the session he read me out
as presiding elder of the St Louis District.
This was my first trip. They say that Bish-
op Candler last fall u compassed sea and land "
to fill the pulpits of St. Louis with distin-
guished men. I am sure that no one will be
offended if I compare his appointments with
those of Bishop Early forty-four years ago :
First Church, Charles B. Parsons, DJX,
LL.D., a reformed actor;* Centenary, Broth-
er Enoch M. Marvin; Asbury, Joseph Boyle.
D.D.; Mound, William M. Leftwich, M.A.,
Jackson College; St. Louis Circuit, Thomas
M. Finney, M.A., Yale College; Sixteenth
Street, John C. Shackelford, M.A., Prince-
ton, ]ST. J.; Manchester Circuit, Jacob Ditz-
ler, M.A., Hamilton College; Carondelet, D.
11. Mc Anally, D.D.* These brethren rep-
resented at the ensuing Conference that the
presiding elder had been a "very obedient "'
master. So Bishop Pierce returned me to
*Read " (N'lcbrilit'K ami Less."
the district, and I made a second trip with
the same company
Marvin was a native of Northwest Missouri
when it was a primitive forest. lie had no
literary advantages whatever, except the ob-
scurest country schools. But God called
him to the ministry, and he had a genius for
preaching. He was neither a rhetorician nor
an orator, but his sermons were surcharged
with a holy influence. If a sinner wanted
to quail, he had nothing to do but to sit
down in front of Marvin's pulpit; if a saint
wanted to shout, he took the same position.
There was a Bible on it and a man behind
it and a God over it at every service. He
and Caples were called the " thunder-pipes
of the West;" but Caples was somewhat
timid under oak-grained ceilings. Marvin
knew nothing of fear. He could have
preached just as well in St. Paul's Cathe-
dral as under a brush arbor. When our
first quarterly meeting came on at Cente-
nary Church he said to me at the close of the
third sermon: "I will preach to-night if you
will allow me to explain why. My quarter-
68 ///■;.!//. \v . v f ■/•; at /■: n.
ly meeting's are always protracted. You
will rest to-night; but I shall expect you
on Monday night."
When Brother Marvin took charge of Cen-
tenary you should have seen his country-
made clothes, especially that blue overcoat.
The ladies took charge of him, and very
soon had him enveloped in black French
cloth — tout en>;riul>le. Ten years after this
he landed in ]S'ew Orleans to be ordained a
bishop. Old Dr. Prottsman will bear me
witness how the bishop-elect was conducted
to a clothing store before he was allowed to
make his appearance on the floor of the Gen-
eral Conference. About this time Marvin
began to write books, and continued to pub-
lish volume after volume until death para-
lyzed the facile fingers.
Jacob Ditzler, out on the Manchester Cir-
cuit, was from the blue grass of Kentucky
lie was a learned youth. "All things he
seemed to know " JIc did once acknowl-
edge to me that he had not read the '"Pil-
grim's Progress" and '■ Robinson Crusoe."
There were not appointments enough on
the circuit to give full scope to his activ-
ity, so he built brush arbors in various
neighborhoods and held protracted meetings.
Dr. Ditzler has been of great service to our
Church by the books he has written, and on
many a "glorious and well-foughten " field
of debate. He is somewhat singular. He
thinks if all men were to hang like a string
of candles, or rattle like a bag of marbles, we
should have no variety One of those tire-
some old broadbrims used to say to him:
"Mr. "Wesley always rose at four." "Mr.
Wesley always preached at five;" "Mr.
Wesley always retired at nine." Ditzler re-
plied: "Well, what if he did?"
Thomas M. Finney was the son of a rich
man, had graduated at Yale College, had
read law with Edward Bates, and was now
filling his second or third appointment.
The Church contributed as many thou-
sands to various Church enterprises this year
as it had given hundreds the year before.
During my first year in Columbia, Tenn.,
we buried our first child, Fanny Forrester.
Now we buried our second, Hillary Summer-
field. The one was seven weeks old; the
other was seven years. Our servant maid
died also. From this time my wife and I
traveled the pathway alone.
In the winter of 18 5 5 I tested the bitter-
ness of cold weather. Two circuits were
some distance in the country The morning-
came to start out to Rich Woods. The mer-
cury stood at twenty-two degrees below
zero. Shall I stay at home, or shall I em-
ploy a regular city hackman to take me?
The question was soon decided, and a white
man with a good team and a strong, close
carriage stood at the door. Overcoats,
cloaks, and Baltimore blankets were brought
into requisition. At the first quarterly
meeting the hackman was gloriously con-
verted. At the second he rejoiced all the
time. When we got back to the city he
wanted nothing but his incidental expenses,
and insisted on going again. Of course 1
thought the workman should be paid for his
Xow for broad prairies and an abundance
of country air.
The richest farming country I have ever
seen were the four counties embraced in the
Lexington District. The staple production
was hemp. Negroes were the most numer-
ous class of working-men. The manners and
customs of the people were like those prevail-
ing in the South. Among the white people
there seemed to be two classes — "prairie
folks" and "timberites." The first of these
were the aristocratic people. At the first
quarterly meeting I attended they gave me
to understand that the horse and buggy I
brought from St. Louis would not do at all.
They were not en regie by at least fifty
years. Rich people never hesitate to give
advice. Have not they succeeded? Are
they not wise?
Lexington District had ten appointments
— five stations and five circuits. At the
close of the first round I determined on sev-
eral new churches. In less than three years
they were all completed and paid for — at
Lexington, Independence, Dover, Pleasant
Hill, and in the country. So the prosperous
brethren found a rent for more than fifty
thousand dollars of surplus funds.
The most western charge on the district
was Kansas City- This was an aggregation
of houses, divided by awfully dirty lanes
and gutters called streets and alleys. The
place contained eleven thousand white folks
and Indians. The AVyandottes had read in
a St. Louis paper that false and foolish story
about my descent from the Cherokees, so
they came swarming over at each quarterly
meeting to hear the tall chief. Mrs. Xorth-
rup, a banker's wife, always spoke in the
love feasts. She could tell the delightful
story with much fluency and state the order
of God's operation in her heart with great
precision. The missionary to her tribe came
and preached; her soul was enlightened and
made sorry for sin; she trusted in the blood
of Christ and was regenerated by the Spirit.
She always closed with the same words:
u Me happy heap ! Me happy heap ! " M any
REMIX IXC EXCEtt. 73
years after this, at a session of Conference
held at Wyandotte City, I found myself
quartered at the Northrups. They had got-
ten rich, and lived in ample style. Kansas
City was the place of departure for the nu-
merous Santa Fe trains — ox trains; now it
is one of the great railroad centers of the
world. Kansas City was then an irregular
village; now it is a large and stately city.
I cannot take leave of Upper Missouri
without testifying* to the graceful and un-
bounded hospitality of the people. At the
ample homes of Mrs. Porter, Robert Brown,
C. D. Kavanaugh, and others, I spent many
delightful summer weeks. I also wish to
record my thoughts and expectations of cer-
tain young men. I knew that if ^Nathan
Scarritt kept quiet, or even went to sleep,
he was bound to become a millionaire. No
man in that region ever made a better use
of his prosperity I expected a young law-
yer in Kansas City who talked Thackeray's
"Humorists" and Boswell's "Johnson" to
go to the Supreme Bench of Missouri. He
did. I picked out Thomas Crittenden, of
Lexington, for a Governor of the State. I
selected Vest for any honors within human
reach. To all of which I will add Hon. AY.
D. Beard, who married Miss Henderson, of
Lexington. He is now one of the Supreme
Judges of Tennessee.
But the war was coming on. Yancey was
abroad in the South. The States were be-
o-inninir to secede from the Union. Lincoln's
proclamation was sounding through the land.
AYide-awake processions a mile in length
were marching through the streets of St.
Louis. My work on the district was finished
up, and my report was ready for Confer-
After I had been in Missouri seven years
to a day, Bishop Kavanaugh was kind
enough to transfer me back to Tennessee.
On my arrival at the hotel in Nashville I
met Bishop Pierce, just out of the chair of
the Tennessee Conference. He informed me
that, at the request of Gov. Campbell, Col.
Stokes, Dr. Owen, Henry Frascr, and others, I
was stationed in Lebanon again. The place
suited me exactly, for if you want to study go
to Lebanon and select you a quiet home. Ev-
erything there is provocative of study. The
pulpit feels twice a week the weight of an
educated and an intelligent congregation.
At your boarding house the table is sur-
rounded by university students of every
grade. You are invited to join some ma-
ture literary or professional club not con-
nected Avith the university Down on the pub-
lic square an LL.D. conducted me across it
to a bookstore to convince me that the letter
a s" in the name of Edward Payson was not
The country home of Rev- John Kelley
and his wife, Lavinia Kelley, Avas the center
of attraction for us. You began to improve
from the time you entered the front gate, and
improvement continued until you left it the
next Aveek. Mrs. Kelley could hold a con-
versation Avith you. AVe could turn our
thoughts and sentiments and knowledge to-
gether and each one rise up the Aviser and
better. Some people talk Avith you by the
hour Avho seem to haA r e passed the following
resolution : '" Be it unanimously resolved
76 /. , /;.i//\/N(7;.\r/wv.
that everybody and everything in this world
is wrong. r Whoever heard Mrs. Kelley re-
peat one word of gossip or animadversion or
tirade? ^sone. She could and did converse.
Her knowledge was as boundless as that of
Hannah More, and her religion far more ex-
When the battle of Manassas was fought
I was selected to conduct the thanksgiving
service. That event marked the close of my
" acceptability and usefulness " with the
most influential members of my congrega-
tion. They were on the other side.
The "Wesleyan University at Florence,
Ala., was the successor of the old Lagrange
College. The grounds were ample and
beautiful. The buildings cost forty thou-
sand dollars. It had. also a small endow-
ment. The president's house was near by, to
which belonged five acres of ground. I was
elected to the presidency in the fall of 1861,
and took charge in the winter, at a salary of
twenty-five hundred dollars a year. My
predecessor was R. H. Rivers, D.D., whose
last catalogue showed over three hundred
names. His predecessors were James "W.
Hardy, A.M., and S. "W. Moore, D.D., whose
regime stretched back to Bishop Robert
Paine. I was not well qualified for the
place, but I determined to study. So I or-
dered on a cord of books — works on logic,
rhetoric, metaphysics, political economy,
Christian evidences, and the like. They are
all in my library yet, except those borrowed
by former Vanderbilt professors. J was
fond of college life. Went in at nine o'clock
a.m., and came out at twelve. For six days
in the week I had nothing' to do but exist,
study, and lecture. Its quietude and monot-
ony suited my indolent disposition exactl} r
My pulpit labor never exceeded two ser-
mons on Sunday. I remained in Florence
The faculty was composed of gentlemen
worthy and well qualified. S. P. Rice, A.M.,
Principal of the Preparatory Department,
had been teaching from his boyhood. He
was an old-fashioned scholar — w r as acquaint-
ed with no macadamized roads to learning.
He knew all the elementary books " by
heart," could read Greek to Homer and Lat-
in to Juvenal. He was familiar Avith mathe-
matics from Hay's Arithmetic to the Mcehan-
ique Celeste of La Place. He could do one
thing more: he Avas a fine leader of congre-
Prof. Prouskoski Avas a Polander — taught
the ancient and modern classics. He brought
evidences of high standing from four Ger-
man universities. He was the loneliest hu-
man being I have ever seen this side of Mar
Saba. He lived precisely as a hermit is sup-
posed to live.
Prof. Peak taught the higher mathemat-
ics, and was at the head of our military de-
partment. He graduated at the Universit}"
in Charlottesville, and was an " Old Virgin-
ian " from crown to heel. Of the other pro-
fessors I need not write just now Most of
them were in the Confederate army.
I am happy to say that some of our stu-
dents have been heard from — McCook, of
the North; Ross, of Texas; and Judge Es-
tes, of Memphis.
Although we were in the midst of the civil
war, there were several interesting people
still in Florence. Old Gov. Robert Patton
was a ruling elder in the Presbyterian
Church. Pie could manage an enormous cot-
ton plantation, could count interest on a
note until two o'clock in the afternoon, could
govern the State of Alabama, but nobody
expected him to preach. One Sunday morn-
ing when the Federals were present Dr.
Mitchell was captured as he came down
from the pulpit, and sent to the military pris-
on at Alton, 111. Elder Patton gave notice
that the Sunday school and morning services
of that Church would be continued with the
usual regularity Every wit and humorist
of the town attended, and each Sunday
morning heard a sermon from one of the
leading party politicians of the State. At one
service he aired the whole volume of his sa-
cred learning to prove that "John the Bap-
tist was not John the evangelist, but a very
Hon. Richard Walker made his home in
Florence. He had graduated at Princeton,
'N. J., and was now the Chief Justice of Al-
abama, lie intermeddled with every spe-
cies of literary knowledge, and was a wel-
come guest in all learned circles.
I was made acquainted Avith another per-
sonage, Gen. W. T. Sherman. While his
vast army was passing through Florence on
the Avay to Chattanooga the commander in
chief established his headquarters in the li-
brary room of the college. He was a tall.
hardy, and homely man — walked back and
forth and talked incessantly. Here are some
of his assertions : "I have lived in the
South; " " I am not opposed to slavery; " " I
am in favor of it;" "I am fighting to put
down this rebellion and restore the Union; "
"War is cruel — war is hell; but this one
will continue until the Union is restored."
Gen. Sherman knew that Dodge's brigade
would be passing through after he left, so he
gave me a paper protecting the college prop-
erty and faculty- He knew Dodge and his
men. Gen. Sherman spent the latter part
of his life in St. Louis, entertaining admir-
During our residence in Florence we fre-
quently had a pleasant visitor from Tiiscum-
bia, Rev. James D. Barbee, D.D. I remem-
ber well the Conference of 1852, when the
burly youth came up to join us. He was
my roommate at the house of Thomas Mar-
tin, of Pulaski. He had never taken a text
or preached a sermon. He certainly has
been an apt scholar since then. Forty-six
years of blameless life, of self-denying and
arduous labor, ought to stand for something,
even among those "spiritual" brethren who
have animadverted so sincerely and so ve-
When the Avar was over other bright citi-
zens returned. Among them was Gen. K. A.
O'Xeal, who led a grand charge at Chancel-
lorsville and came home wounded. lie aft-
erwards served two terms as Governor of
Alabama. Judge Henry C. Jones came
home from the Confederate Congress and
enlivened the town with his marvelous gifts
The Wesleyan University was converted
into the State Xormal School, which is run-
ning prosperously to the present time. An
important church in Xashville had to be
finished and paid for. Dr. Green set his
head on giving the task to me. So I re-
turned to the pastorate.
Just across the Cumberland Kiver is a
population of twenty thousand. This is
East Nashville, where so many of our fine
old folks live. About the year 1860 they
undertook to build Tulip Street Church.
When the war came on they had an unfin-
ished building and a considerable debt.
This was my appointment in the fall of
A genuine revival of religion is frequently
a cure for all Church troubles. So, after the
Conference adjourned, I continued the gospel
services every evening. The result was the
conversion of sixty-seven excellent people,
each one of whom united with the Church.
We had no evangelist to help us with his
" seventeen separate and distinct proposi-
tions" at the close of each service, but we had
our neighbor, old Dr. T. O. Summers. There
was a vast amount of show-window learning
in his Sunday morning sermons, but there
was a plenitude of gospel also. He was not
a Aery accurate elementary scholar, but on
all the high points he was peerless. Before
the close of the year the completed church
Avas dedicated and paid for. The communi-
cants had increased over sevenfold, or from
87 to 2G7.
I had attended a General Conference of
the Methodist Episcopal Church held in In-
dianapolis in 1856. This Avas the session
at which Dr. Abel Stevens insisted that no
first-class man should be elected a bishop —
that an absolutely first-class man with schol-
arly habits Avould grow weary of trundling
around from sea to sea holding Annual Con-
ferences. Men of high mediocrity suited
best for the office.
I had also been a visitor to the General
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, South, held in Nashville in 1858.
Here Dr. II. IST. McTyeire came to the front
as a debater, and Dr. P. P. Neely as a
preacher. Here Dr. "W. M. Wightman, who
Avas almost certain of election, spoke A'igor-
ously against the election of any additional
But at our General Conference of 1866 I
was a member, and somewhat familiar with
the routine of the proceedings. Two things
interested me : the preaching and Dr. Green's
memorial. Hanner led off, as usual, facile
princeps, Pierce next, Doggett and others
at a distance. Summers, poured out vast
loads of learning. For that section of the
memorial recommending an extension of the
pastoral term the young men of the Confer-
ence were a solid unit. We got a noticeable
majority. After the vote was taken, late at
night, we were somewhat boisterous in our
demonstrations. We now had the privilege
of convincing our people that we could preach
four years without repeating the "same ser-
mon from the same text to the same congre-
For the section on lay representation we
were not so unified. To hold Annual and
General Conferences with none but clerical
members looked too priestly; to introduce
lay delegates might be risky So the debate
ran on. The vote was finally taken, and lay
delegation prevailed, I am happy to say.
A new chapter on the support of the min-
istry, and the ritual for the reception of
Church members, originated at this Confer-
ence. They were afterwards rewritten and
We had elected no bishops since IS.)!.
Soule was disabled by age; Andrew asked
for a superannuated relation; another should
have retired. So we agreed on the election
of four additional bishops. The day for the
election was fixed some distance off. Can-
didates were manifold; "timber' was abun-
dant. We never had as many distinguished
friends in our lives as we had at Xew Or-
leans, May, 18(5(3. I rather enjoyed it. " lie
that will have friends must show himself
friendly " William M. Wightman, David
S. Doggett, Enoch M. Marvin, and Holland
X McTyeirc were elected. These were all
thoroughbreds, except one, and he had "a
spark o' natur's fire.' 1 If Bishop Wightman
lacked anything in fitness or polish, I was
unable to discover it. To attend all the
Texas Conferences in his company was a
means of grace. 1 did not know that any
man since the days of Martin Luther spent
so much time in prayer. Bishop Doggett
was a memoriter preacher of great eloquence
and power. He was jealous for the very
fringes of the tabernacle. He never could
understand the Texans. Bishop McTyeire
was created for the office to which we elect-
ed him. He was a natural born superin-
tendent — overseer, John Wesley himself
was not fonder of administration than this
one of his successors. In whatever com-
pany you met him you expected him to take
the chair. Old Commodore Vanderbilt once
said to me: "Is McTyeire a good judge of
human nature?" "Yes," said I. "Well, I
thought he was, or I never should have
given him so much money for that college."
Lord Bacon says: "Some men are born
great." Bishop Marvin was one of them.
There were several very wise and worthy
doctors left out. Keener ran well; Sehon
was slaughtered; Duncan was defeated by a
speech from his best friend; we were afraid
to trust Deems with too much authority;
McAnally was too cold and distant.
If one looked round the audience room
ol' ( arondelet ( 'hurch, he saw several prom-
ising young doctors that were coming on.
This was their first session. Hargrove spoke
several times. Key spoke once. Any ques-
tion that concerned the Pacific Coast brought
Fitzgerald to his feet. He was from the re-
gion of the setting sun, but his cpuiet and
charming humor always suggested the rising
After nearly five weeks we adjourned.
Over three-fourths of the delegates left the
city on the same train. The conductor sent
the following telegram to the dining station:
" One hundred Methodist preachers on board
— chickens for dinner." I have been at some
vast hotels since that day, but I have never
seen so many fowls baked and stewed and
The next October, when I entered the
pulpit of McKendree Church, I was delight-
ed to say to myself: " I can stand here four
years, if these people desire me to do so,
with Dr. A. L. P. Green for my presiding
"I AS(!E>fD to the cupola <3f the magnifi-
cent State house at Nashville, and take a
survey of the surrounding country On
every side spread out the vast and undula-
ting fields of grass and corn into the illimita-
ble distance. A finer agricultural scene was
never witnessed. A more beautiful land-
scape, diversified with broad clearings, wav-
ing crops, tufts of magnolia and poplar,
shining mansions, withdrawing vales, and
purple atmosphere it has never been my
privilege to gaze upon." So writes Dr. Al-
exander Winchell in " Sketches of Creation."
Xashville is built on Silurian limestone, in
the center of the basin of Middle Tennessee.
McKendree is one of the oldest and larg-
est and wealthiest of our Churches. Take
it all the year round, it is certainly the full-
est. It is a sort of cathedral for Southern
Methodism. The pastor cannot but feel the
importance of his charge. Bishops, connec-
tional officers, State officials, university men,
visiting- magnates, and sundry globe trotters
are present at every Sunday service. Yon
are always preaching to people who never
heard you before and will never hear yon
One warm Sunday night I had a hurried
mental preparation. I was rather ashamed
of it; so I concluded to scan my audience.
To the left sat Bishop McTyeire and family -
To the right was the rector of Christ Church.
In front sat Bishop Paine with Col. Fites
family. Farther out I saw the Governor
with a junta of his political friends. Still
farther on, Dr. J M. Buckley, editor of the
JNew York (Jhrlxti.au Advocate. Some pious
gentleman may exclaim: "What if these
were present?" Well, brother, suppose you
come and try it, and then you may possibly
understand what I mean, and not be disposed
to misrepresent me.
During my pastorate four hundred and sev-
enty-six new members were received. Of
these, one hundred and seventeen were con-
verted at the altar in March, 1867 \t the al-
tar is the best place to get converted and the
best place to stay converted. Several preach-
ers' sons were brought in — John W. Hanner,
Jr., Wickliffe Weakley, and others. Because
we had an elderly ecclesiastic whose sons
were not saints, it was passing into a prov-
erb that preachers' sons were generally wick-
ed, if not worthless. The present roll of the
Tennessee Conference is a complete refuta-
tion of this slander. Here we have a second
generation of the Greens, McFerrins, Man-
ners, Moodys, Cherrys, Sow 7 ells, Weakleys,
Browns, Gilberts, Gabards, Kelleys, Tiu-
nons, Grays, and Erwins.
The history of literature for the last two
hundred years will show also what preach-
ers' families have contributed to the world
of letters. Here is a list, made out in less
than one hour. The reader can probably
make out another of the same length :
Civil life: Henry Clay, Edward Everett,
Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, and
Literature: Swift, Lockhart, Macaulay,
Sterne, ilazlett, Thackeray, Bancroft, Em-
92 a* i-j m im s< ■ i <:.\< 7;.s.
erson, Holmes, Kingsley, Matthew Arnold,
llallam, Sisniondi, and scores of others.
Poetry: Young, Copper, Thomson, Cole-
ridge, Montgomery, Heber, Tennyson, and
Mental philosophy : Stuart, Cudworth,
Reici, Brown, Boyle, Abercrombie, and
Theology : Edwards, Whately, Hall, Light -
foot, Lowth, Stillingfleet, Wesley s, Spur-
geons, Beechers, and a list of indefinite
Scientists: Agassiz, Berzelius, Boerhaave,
Encke, Euler, and Linnreus.
Women: Trollope, Barbould, Taylor, Car-
ter, Brontes, Stowe, and others.
Architecture : Wren.
Heroism: Lord Nelson.
In May, 1870, we went to the General
Conference in Memphis. Hither came Dr.
Munsey, in all his glory, greatly to the dis-
comfort of chronic office seekers. When he
preached in the opera house all the churches
in the neighborhood were thinned out. Two
other young doctors appeared at this session:
A. W. Wilson and A. G. Haygood. They
were evidently men with "prospects." The
Irishman from North Carolina was in Mem-
phis also. He was afflicted with cojna ver-
bormn. The women in the front gallery "kept
the tally " on him. They declared that he
was on his feet seventeen times one morn-
ing session. "Speech is silvern; silence is
golden." " Great is the gift of speech, but
greater is the gift of silence."
The race for the episcopacy was between
J. C. Keener and J- A. Duncan. Dr. Dun-
can was a singularly gifted man, but Dr.
Keener was manifestly a ruler. He was
elected by a small majority, and for twenty-
eight years has vindicated our judgment. I
shall never forget the courtesies he has
shown me at various Annual Conferences.
He is a superb table talker. The company
never gets silent and dull where he dines.
I am glad he wrote " Post Oak Circuit."
At this General Conference the first step
was taken toward the establishment of
fraternal relations between the two great
bodies of Methodism, JS'orth and South.
The unofficial presence of Bishop Janes and
Dr. Harris formed a very interesting episode
in our proceedings.
After we came home Dr. Ilaygood ar-
rived, and created our line of periodical lit-
erature for Sunday schools. lie was a regu-
larly educated man, a tireless worker, and a
man of brilliant talents. He was so original
that he always took his own course, and
generally succeeded. One thing he could
not and would not tolerate — clerical cos-
When I took charge of McKendree Church
I ordered all the works on systematic theol-
ogy within reach — Swiss, German, English,
and American. The four years were spent
in reading theology and in making sermons.
Since then I have contented myself with the
The quadrennium at Elm Street was
probably the happiest and most successful
period of my ministerial life. The people
were moderate in their demands and liberal
with their money They were intelligent,
religious, and united. They had bought an
unfinished house from the Cumberland Pres-
byterians, on which there was a lien of $4,-
574. In seven months we paid off the mort-
gage, finished the building, and paid for it.
It was dedicated without a collection. Since
the poor Wesleyans occupied their first
"church house" in England, who has ever
heard such a statement? They came out in
debt, and our people generally have imitated
their example. The May meetings were in
progress here at the time, and Bishop E>og-
«"ett was invited to come and consecrate our
church. He did so in his elegant and im-
pressive way. The next morning I handed
him seventy-five dollars as a slight acknowl-
edgment of his valuable services. lie re-
ceived it with his usual pleasant remarks on
all such occasions. If a great lawyer, in an
important case, had made so great a speech,
five hundred dollars would have been a min-
imum fee. The difference is explained in
the New Testament.
AVe had not worshiped in the new au-
dience room many weeks before the revival
influence was apparent. The protracted
meeting lasted thirty days and nights. One
hundred sinners were converted at the altar,
and how many throughout the neighborhood
I was not able to ascertain. Elm Street soon
reported the largest Sunday school in the
Southern Church, and the prayer meetings
filled the lecture room.
About this time a youth named E. E. Hoss
walked into Elm Street one Sunday morning.
I knew his father well. lie was a solid
farmer in the neighborhood of Washington
College. I lis cousin. Landon C. I loss, was
a classmate of mine Old Oov. Sevier was
his gTcat-irrandfather. The voung man was
trained at the Ohio Wesleyan Universitv,
and graduated at Emory and Henry College.
He was received on trial into the Holston
Conference in 1869, and staioned at Green-
ville and Jonesboro. The next fall he was
read out to the leading- appointment in the
Conference — Ivnoxville. He came over to
Nashville to see and hear the old heroes,
but after preaching* once or twice he found
himself a young hero. I hope we shall have
the pleasure of meeting him again in some
In the fall of 1871, in Lebanon, Tenn., on
Monday afternoon, when Bishop Pierce was
rushing business with a view to adjourn-
ment, Dr. D. C. Kelley handed a resolution
to the secretary. It was read. The sub-
stance of the resolution was a declaration
that the time had arrived when a great
movement should be made to create a uni-
versity of high grade and large endowment.
It called for a committee to visit at least
seven Conferences. When it was passed
Bishop Pierce wrote three names on the
back of it — Green, Young, Kelley This
was the grain of mustard seed from which
DiS A , A. , .i//.\7.s'(7:.vr/;,s'.
Yaiulerbilt University grew Dr. Kelley
visited and enlisted the North Alabama
Conference, Dr. Green the Memphis and
the North Mississippi Conferences, and Dr.
Young- the three Conferences in Arkansas.
We held a convention in Memphis in Janu-
ary, 1872. After two days of deliberation
Ave determined to build and endow the Cen-
tral T University of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, South. Five agents were appointed
to present the claims of the enterprise to
the people of seven Annual Conferences
and raise the money. But we are all free to
confess that the agency and influence of
Bishop McTyeire and the money and liber-
ality of the Vanderbilts saved us from a long
and very doubtful canvass. Commodore
Vanderbilt's first half million was received
March 2G, 1.S7J>. Soon after this he added
another half million. After the lapse of a
little time his son, "William II. Yaiulerbilt,
sent us a half million more. Various mem-
bers of his family have helped us on a small-
er scale. We are all confident that, in the
opening year of the twentieth century, our
Southern ]3eople will show their apprecia-
tion of all this Northern aid.
The Louisville General Conference opened
May, 1874, continued over twenty days,
and then closed. It was the inconsequential
session. All the old officers were reelected.
The proceedings were on a dead level from
beginning to end, except once; that was on
the day when we received the fraternal dele-
gates from the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Two were clergymen, one a military man.
Dr. Fowler was immense — " like leviathan,
he stretched out many a rood." I can think
of no art of popular oratory he had not mas-
tered. Dr. Hunt was polished and even clas-
sical; but the argument went straight on, and
his appeals touched every intellect and heart.
The military man reminded us of the huge
animal that always leads the caravan. lie
moves right on, and all the others follow
When all had ceased, you would have sup-
posed that the Southern Methodists were the
best and cleverest people that dwelt on the
planet, and that none knew it or appreciated
it like our brethren north of the Ohio.
Rev ¥ K. Pitts died during the session.
We gave him a funeral at the "Walnut Street
Church befitting a prince; for surely '• a
prince and a great man " had fallen in our
Dr. A. L. P. Green's noble wife took him
home before the session closed. lie died in
the summer thereafter. These were his last
words to me : " Young, if I see you no more,
it's all right — it's all right."
On the 10th of May, 1873, I was elected
Secretary of the Board of Trust of Vander-
bilt University, and so my appointments
read for the next seven years. This was the
mistake of my life. I am naturally too lym-
phatic and slow for such an occupation. A
man like Dr. D. C. Kelley should have had
Foil the first four years of my secretaryship
the most of my time was spent in the office.
We were buying and improving' the "Vander-
bilt campus and putting up the vast and nu-
merous buildings thereon. To settle with
every different contractor, to file away their
returned checks in chronological order, and
keep a set of books taught one the meaning
of Charles Lamb's expression : " The desk's
dead wood." In purchases and improve-
ments we spent more than one-half million
of dollars. Besides the Vanderbilt money,
we had a handsome little " welcome fund,"
contributed by our generous citizens to show
how highly they appreciated the Commo-
dore's selection of Xashville.
During the seasons of the Annual and
the District Conferences I made many a de-
lightful and profitable trip. The presiding
officer always allowed me to speak. My ob-
ject was to convince bright and ambitious
young men of moderate means that they were
able to pay all the expenses at Vanderbilt
I nivcrsity I always wound up by calling
for a contribution to a " sustentation fund,"
to keep young men from leaving the univer-
sity for want of money The contribution
was made by signing a promissory note for
one hundred dollars, or more, on which in-
terest was paid annually at the rate of six
per cent. It would surprise one to read the
list of theological students who have re-
mained three or four years at Vanderbilt on
this fund. It was loaned to them, not given.
A large majority were worthy of the favor;
the others were not. It will be a riskv busi-
ness to dispute this statement, for my next
duty after finishing this paragraph is to an-
swer a letter from one of this unworthy
Of course I was always welcome at the
sessions of those Conferences which oriiri-
nally combined to build and endow the uni-
versity There were certain brethren who
always made it a point to give me the best-
hour of the best day for my speech. I am
REMIX 1 S (J E A CE tf. 103
bound to mention Dr. Anson West, Dr. W.
0. Johnson, Dr. T. Y. Kamsey, Dr. Andrew
Hunter, Dr. G. A. Dannelly, and Dr. S. H.
Babcock. Outside of these seven "patroni-
zing Conferences," I must mention the name
of Dr. E. E. Wiley, of Holston, President
of Emory and Henry College. He knew
the difference between a first-class college
and a university with seven departments.
There were three colleges in the South whose
presidents did not. They certainly did not
appreciate the views of the agent of Vander-
iS'ow, forasmuch as several others have
taken in hand to set forth the origin of the
" bond scheme " that saved our Publishing
House so easily and triumphantly, you will
allow me to give my recollection. We were
spending a week at Mr. Dempsey Weaver's,
several miles out. We were both members
of the Book Committee. One day at dinner
the conversation turned on the Franco-
Prussian war. The war debt of France and
the " indemnity" demanded by Prussia, cover-
ing an inconceivable number of francs, had
all been funded readily and quickly by the
people of the French Republic. " Why not
fund the debt of the Publishing House by
issuing four per cent bonds?" quoth Mr.
At the next meeting of the Book Commit-
tee the whole matter was thoroughly dis-
cussed. I was personally interested to the
amount of $51,000, for my name was on
that amount of paper in the bank. Mr.
Weaver's, name was on a larger sum. Col.
Fite was not far behind. Bishop McTyeire
was present, and expressed the opinion that
our plan would "hold water."
So we went up to the General Conference
in Atlanta, May, 1878. That was a live ses-
sion from opening to adjournment. We
had a question of more importance than the
making of bishops — namely, the saving of
our Publishing House. It was in debt more
than $350,000. The moment the -bond
scheme" was mentioned the Conference was
in a commotion. The Chair rang me down
at the end of a fifteen minutes' speech. The
Virginia gentleman who followed was for
liquidation. After some days the brethren
quieted down, elected a new Book Agent,
and gave him a Book Committee of great
financial strength and experience. They
concluded to let us save the House if we
could. We did. It cost Dr. McFerrin and
myself two years of endless travel and in-
cessant speaking to place the bonds ; but we
placed them. The House has enjoyed a full
tide of prosperity from that day to this.
The General Conference of 1878 did more
than this. It elected Dr. A. W. Wilson
Secretary of the Board of Missions. By his
unique eloquence he stirred the Church
" from the center all round to the sea "as it
never had been stirred before. He taught
scores of young men how to preach. They
could not plagiarize his sermons, but from
each they got a compact body of divinity
The reason why you cannot appropriate his
sermon is this: it has no "hedges and ditch-
es." Where does introduction end and ar-
gumentation begin? And where does argu-
mentation end and peroration begin?
Dr. O. P Fitzgerald was elected to the
editorship of the (■hrishmt Ac/roratr. In a
lew years the subscription list reached twen-
ty-five thousand. The editor amis Addison
and Steele combined. He added the wit of
the latter to the graceful rhetoric of the for-
mer. If you went to his ofiiice and sat down,
he acted exactly as if he had nothing in the
world to do but to entertain his visitors.
Deliver me from that gentleman who goes
through the world with a watch in his hand!
Dr. Cunnyngham was returned to the office
of the Sunday School Department, there to
pour out sacred literature as from a cornu-
While in Atlanta wife and I had rooms at
a first-class hotel. Our bill was 8130. Of-
fering to pay it, T was informed that Mr. In-
raan had settled it for me. The Tnmans
were from Dandridge, East Tennessee.
" iii|ilrti»i • ;
W. G. E. CUNNYNGHAM.
I still remained in the Vanderbilt office,
but the affairs of the University were so set-
tled and prosperous that they did require all
my time. The President of the Board was
more than willing- that I should assist Dr.
McFerrin for a year or two. I tried my
"bond speech" before the new Book Com-
mittee. Of course Mr. Weaver's subscrip-
tion was in the lead of all others. The old
Doctor tested his "bond speech" before the
The Doctor and I then journeyed together
to the large cities. At Louisville Rev. H.
C. Morrison and Mr. John Carter rendered
us invaluable assistance. We did not know
that Brother Morrison was the future finan-
cier of the Church, who should rake its
treasures together and pay its enormous
Church debts. Commend me to the man
that can do things. Some men can talk
fluently on all subjects suggested by earth
108 remixis<;i;n< 'i;s.
or sea or sky, but can accomplish nothing - .
"To-morrow" would be a proper name for
the whole crowd.
At Richmond Dr. Lafferty had "norated ''
us in his characteristic style. The editors
of some Church papers have no talent for
newspaper literature at all. They can write
animadversions and tirades on all subjects
from "shoe leather to the solar system," but
have no genius for journalism. Lafferty has
an immense literary endowment. Each one
of the sixteen figures of rhetoric is at his
command; but when he compared me to Og,
the King of Bashan, he stretched one of
them to its utmost tension — hyperbole. The
Doctor is not the most serious man on the
Potomac. He thinks:
A little nonsense now and then
Is relished by the wisest men.
Bishop Doggett presided. At the close
of my speech silence prevailed. I threw off
sentence after sentence, appeal after appeal:
but there was no response. At last the
Chair discovered the trend of thought and
determination, and came down with five him-
dred dollars. Then the signatures came in
thick and fast.
Dr. John E. Edwards chaperoned us
everywhere. The rays of the sun were
never brighter than his intellect and heart.
And grand old Tom Branch feasted us on
six-o'clock dinners and bought our bonds.
After a while the Doctor and I concluded
to separate. He took the territory east of
the Mississippi Kiver, and I took the west.
In less than two years we met Fait accom-
On the 18th of August, 1880, I had the
pleasure of leading to the matrimonial altar
Mrs. Anna Green Hunter, youngest child of
Dr. A. L. P Green. The ceremony was
performed by Bishop McTyeire in the pres-
ence of every member of the Green family.
After spending the remainder of the sum-
mer in Canada, we returned ready for the
My great desire was to settle down in the
pastoral work again, and perform its daily
and quiet duties. I was tired of stare and
pressure. Bishop Paiiie stationed me at Fos-
ter Street Church, out of which has grown
the large and beautiful McFerrin Memorial.
The next fall Bishop McTyeire put me in
the pulpit of West End Church, where I was
standing when the General Conference of
1882 opened in May. I am tempted to say
that I enjoyed Foster Street most, for there
the people were satisfied with straightfor-
ward orthodoxy; but at West End they in-
sisted on the fact that the nominative case
must govern the verb in number and person.
The session of 1882 was held in Xashville.
I was chairman of the committee on homes,
and here bear testimony that I had no trouble
to find hospitable entertainment for every
member, clerical and lay The lulls of those
who stayed at hotels were paid by some very
busy professional man or some countess
dowager who was not taking company I
take pleasure in stating these facts, espe-
cially since they say that Southern hospital-
ity is dying out. Richmond in 1S8(> fell
behind Xashville in no respect whatever.
Toward the close of the session in 1SS2
Dr. A. W. Wilson, Dr. J. C. Granbery, Dr.
Linus Parker, and Dr. R. K. Hargrove were
elected to the episcopacy "Wilson was
taken from the Mission Board, Granbery
from Yanderbilt University, Parker from
an editorship, and Hargrove from a presid-
ing eldership. Dr. P. A. Young was elect-
ed Secretary of the Board of Missions; Dr.
D. C. Kelley, Treasurer; Dr. J B. McFer-
rin was returned to the Book Agency, Dr.
O. P. Fitzgerald to the Clrrisiian Advocate,
and Dr. Cunnvngham to the Sunday School
Department. Dr. Kelly and myself found
that the high-water mark reached bv Dr.
Wilson was S103,009. We ran it up a little
distance each year until we reached nearly
8223,000. That was honor enough, and of
course we were in danger of defeat.
Dr. Thomas O. Summers, Secretary of the
Conference, died during the session. He
had occupied that position since the Louis-
ville Convention in 18-A5, so far as I now
recollect. He had been the President of our
Board of Missions since 1866. During his
varied editorial career he sat on the tri-
pod of the Charleston (Jhristi.an Adcocate,
the Nashville Christian Adcocate, the rian-
day /School Visitor, and the Quarterly Re-
view. His last article for the Quarterly Re-
view was on foreign missions. Few preach-
ers have ever received a more imposing' fu-
neral. Since his death his manuscripts have
been gathered together by Dr. Tigert, and a
complete body of divinity has been pub-
lished. Chancellor Garland succeeded him
as President of the Board of Missions.
During my term of office some long jour-
neys were required. If I made a trip that was
unusually strange and interesting, new and in-
structive, or successful and profitable, I al-
ways wrote it up at the time. Some of these
manuscripts may be printed for the benefit
of my readers. They are the best "reminis-
cences " of places and people that were seen
at the time.
A glance at my predecessors in the Mis-
sion Rooms will be afforded. Dr. E. W
Sehon was a Virginian, large, portly, and
graceful to the last degree. If you had
passed him on the Strand in London, you
would have stopped and inquired his name,
nationality, and profession. He was fond of
tailor-made suits, fine carriages, and late
dinners. The Doctor was always ready to
speak. He spoke with ease, fluency, and
power, but said nothing new or profound.
Forasmuch as he remained in office for a
long time, I infer that the results of his la-
bor were satisfactory The last time I saw
his shining face he was presiding elder of
the Louisville District. It is a dull bishop
that does not know how to let us down
Dr. W. E. Munsey was elected by the
Board of Missions to succeed Dr. Sehon.
He was the mere fragment of a man, but he
was a blazing fragment. His person was
inconsequential, his dress abominable, his
manners simple; but he spoke " with the
tongue of men and angels." lie said nothing
in the pulpit or on the platform that edified
or instructed cultivated men with practical
minds; yet they ran in multitudes to hear
him, and would do so again and again.
" Sound and fury" — but did you not love to
hear the sound and see the fury? The Gen-
eral Conference of 1870 did not reelect him.
He did not know how to manage the aft airs
and details of his office. He died on his
knees at home, and went to heaven. The
publication of his sermons was a hit of Bish-
op Keener's. We have no book of sermons
that has gone through so many editions.
Munsey was succeeded by Dr. John B.
McFerrin. He had been missionary to the
Indians, circuit preacher, presiding elder,
city pastor, editor, Book Agent; so when he
entered the office he knew all the machinery
of the Church "by heart." The " old Doc-
tor" served the Board of Missions eiirht
years, and was sent back in 1S78 to the
book agency In this office he died.
Dr. A. AY. Wilson preceded me. Of him
I have spoken and written so often that it is
not necessary for me to add anything- on
this page. I am glad that he has returned,
safe and sound, from his third visit to our
Conferences in the Orient. I do not wonder
that the brethren are anxious for him to come
The treasurer and myself had our offices
in the Publishing House. There was noth-
ing between us but a thin plank partition.
I am happy to state that no inharmonious
word ever divided us. AYe had to confront
this statement: "More money or returned
missionaries. "' So we banded ourselves to-
gether for more money and more mission-
aries. Here is the result. I quote from ])r.
P A. Peterson's "Handbook of Southern
Methodism:" 1881-82, $103,901; 1882-88,
$160,272; 1883-84, $183,692; 1884-85, $191,-
600; 1885-86, $222,127 New missionaries
were sent out in proportion to the increase
of our funds. I beg your pardon — at one
time we sent them out a little more rapidly
Dr. Kelley and myself put our official signa-
IK; /.'/■;.)// v/wawc/vn.
turcs and our personal indorsement on Si 20,-
000, borrowed from the American Xational
This paragraph would not have been
written but for the enlightenment of one
pair of eyes. I hope it will be memorized,
and that confession will be made.
In my declining years, when I think of
the long trips we made, traveling by day
and by night, to reach at least fifteen Con-
ferences each year, I am amazed that mortal
flesh and blood could endure such a tum-
bled-up existence for four years.
On the long route from Maryland to Mex-
ico, zigzaging through the territory of the
Church, you meet wth a great many good
and interesting people that memory will not
let die. Who does not recollect Magruder,
of Baltimore? Was there ever a layman
that made himself more useful? He could
sing, lead the family and the congregation
in prayer, superintend the Sunday school,
preside in the stewards' meeting or the State
Sunday School Convention, lake the lead in
the District or the Annual C< inference, and
speak with ease and power in the legislative
department of the Church. When I lifted
a collection in the Baltimore Conference I
was sure of success if Magrnder was there.
And so I could write on to the end of the
But no speed of ours avails
To hunt up his shining trails.
One Sunday morning, just at the break of
day, our train ran into Trinidad, Southern
Colorado. I looked at my continuous
through ticket, and then thought of the
commandment. Instantly I determined not
to travel on Sunday At ten o'clock I was
in a class meeting, and at eleven I was in
the pulpit of a beautiful new church of ours.
At one o'clock I dined with the pastor and
a layman of his congregation. After dinner
the talk began. The layman's story was
this: He had made $3,500 laying rails on
the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe rail-
road. With this he bought " a bunch " of
cattle, and turned them on a cheap " ranch."
Once a year he had a " round up," and made
a "cut out" sufficient for his support. The
cattle chewed the grass and he "got rich.'
Last week he had sold the whole ''bunch"
for $300,000 cash. All this was done in five
years. At the close of this interesting nar-
rative I said to him: "Brother, this church
where we worshiped to-day owes one thou-
sand dollars. Please to meet me at the
train to-morrow at ten o'clock, and tell me
that it does not owe one cent." The next
morning he was there promptly with the
good news — he had paid it all. The name is
At the close of my term of office I did not
expect reelection. I had set my heart on a
trip to the Orient, and was not disappointed.
I delivered the keys of the Missionary De-
partment to Rev. I. G. John, D.D., of Tex-
as. There have been several worthy asso-
ciates and successors: Dr. A. Coke Smith.
Dr. W. IT. Potter, Dr. II. C. Morrison. Dr.
~W. R. Lambuth, and Dr. J. II. Pritcheft.
The General Conference of 1886 met in
Richmond, Va. Hospitality abounded. Ev-
ery man thought he had the best home.
The trustees gave the audience room of Cen-
tenary Church for our daily sessions. Visit-
ors from all parts of our Church, Xorth and
South, were introduced. Even some distin-
guished evangelists looked in on us, and en-
lightened our minds with a sermon or two.
They tool- v<> collection !
The vote for bishops resulted in the elec-
tion of Dr. C. B. Galloway, Dr. W. AV.
Duncan, Dr. E. R. Hendrix, and Dr. J S.
Key There are no advantages for mental
training and high culture in this country
that these brethren have not enjoyed from
their childhood. Galloway graduated at the
University of Mississippi; Duncan, at Ran-
dolph-Macon, Virginia; Key, at Oxford, Ga. ;
and Hendrix, at two or three institutions.
To which they have all added the unwritten
advantages of foreisni travel. Their fathers
were all gentlemen of abundant means, and
lavished their money on the education of
their sons. Shylock keeps his shining ore
in his bags and boxes, and his sons are bump-
About the middle of the quadrennium that
closed in Richmond we met in Baltimore to
hold the Centennial Methodist Conference.
Delegates were present from every branch
of Methodism in Xorth America. I have
seen the Congress of the United States, the
parliamentary bodies of Great Britain. Aus-
tria, and Xorway; but a body of grander-
looking men than the members of the Cen-
tennial Conference I have never beheld. Of
course we met in December, 1884; the
memorable Christmas Conference was held
in December, 1784. AYe met in Baltimore:
the historic Christmas Conference was hold
The "W esleyans celebrated the year 1839
as a centenary year. Tt had been one hun-
dred years since our religious " movement"'
began among the poor people of London
and England. Our people in the United
States and Canada participated very gener-
ally. Centenary Circuits and Centenary
Churches may be found all over the connec-
tion. I was a boy of fifteen, and still attend-
ing the Presbyterian Church, but I shall
never forget a book that the Methodist local
preacher gave me that year.
The Methodist Episcopal Church observed
1866 as a centenary year. It marked the
one hundredth year since the religious move-
ment called Methodism was introduced in
North America. The war was just over,
and of course the Southern brethren had no
part or lot in the celebration.
The resolution that finally called together
the Centennial Methodist Conference, De-
cember 9-17, 1881:, originated with the Meth-
odist Episcopal Church, South. In due time
all the other branches wheeled into line.
This Conference marked the epoch (Decem-
ber, 1784) when our Church was organized
as an independent body, separate from the
Church of England and all other " entan-
gling alliances.' 1 Then we laid away all the
pray or books that remained among us, and
ceased to read the morning and evening
service of the Anglican Church. Then our
people entered upon their God-given work
as an efficient and unique organization.
As I now recollect them, the ablest dis-
course was the opening sermon by Bishop
K. S. Foster; the most eloquent essays were
those read by Dr J II. Vincent and Prof.
C. J. Little; the most solid and practical,
by Dr Anson AVest and Dr. J. E. Evans.
At the close of Prof. Little's paper it was
difficult to get the body settled down to
business. Xobody seemed to have perfect
command of himself. But did not we sing:
Together let us sweetly live,
Together let us die,
And each a starry crown receive,
And reign above the sky.
I am surprised that so many intelligent
public men labor under the impression that
they can read eloquently before an audience.
1 have heard only two: Dr. Philip P. \eelv,
of Alabama, and Prof. Charles J. Little, of
Pennsylvania. Those of us who had been
selected to read essays and make addresses
were notified weeks beforehand to send our
manuscripts to Baltimore. We did so. Di-
rectly the proof sheets came back for us to
examine. Surely after all this it was not
impossible to "hold forth."
Dr. J. M. Buckley, of Xew York, was
probably the most versatile man on the
floor. As a debater he had made an im-
mense reputation in the Ecumenical Confer-
ence of London. If the Doctor had lived a
few generations back, he might have been
the rival of Charles James Fox.
The social entertainments were delightful,
notably the one at Dr. John F. Goucher's.
The old heroes were all there: Dr. McFer-
rin, Dr. Trimble, and the like. The North-
ern bishops are coffee drinkers and prandial
talkers. Dr. Samuel Johnson and Lord Ma-
caulay might have held their own. I doubt
it. These entertainments were all concluded
During the summer of 1886 I had the
pleasure of preaching to the congregation of
the Park Avenue Church, near my home in
Nashville. Those were happy and quiet
months. This reminiscence leaves me on the
western shore of the melancholy and vora-
cious sea. I step on board the I nibria in
New York harbor. I may be tempted to
describe some of the places and sketch some
of the persons we saw on this ten months'
tour through Europe, Egypt, and Asia Mi-
Adieu, adieu! my native shore
Fades o'er the waters blue.
At this distance of time and place allow
me to return hearty thanks to Bishop Hen-
drix and the presiding elders of the Tennes-
see Conference for giving me a nominal ap-
pointment, that I might gratify a lifelong de-
sire for foreign travel.*
When I lived in Missouri I prepared a
course of lectures on the "Reformers in
Chronological Order" — John Wickliffe in
the fourteenth century; John Huss and Sa-
vonarola in the fifteenth century; Martin
Luther, John Calvin, and John Knox in the
sixteenth century; and John Wesley in the
eighteenth. All these great men, except
the last, sprang from the bosom of the Ro-
man Church. They were all scholars of
the highest grade for the ages in which they
*Kead "Twenty Thousand Miles."
lived. All had the gift of eloquence, except
two, and these were lluent and heroic talk-
ers. 'While we may detect one or two glar-
ing" faults in each of these men, we are sure
that braver disciples of Christ never lived
or stormed or died.
While reading up and preparing notes for
these lectures I became intensely interested
in every fact connected with the Reformers.
So you may judge how their homes and the
scenes of their labors impressed me while
we were in foreign lands. Our first object
was to see all the " Bible lands," from the
banks of the Kile, where Moses was taken
from the ark of bulrushes, to the Isle of Pat-
mos, where John had the revelations. Xext
to this we wanted to visit those countries
where the reformed religion prevails.
At Oxford there are twenty-four colleges
and four halls, hi three of these we felt a
special interest. Baliol was one. John
Wickliffe was appointed head master of this
college before he was forty years of age.
TTere he began to read and study the whole
Bible, in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin,
with a view to his future translation into the
English of that day The result is well
known. He began to diverge so far from
the holy Roman Church that he was ordered
to appear at Lambeth Palace and defend
himself before the Archbishop of Canter-
bury He returned to Baliol a victor. He
was summoned before the primate a second
time, but defended himself with such learn-
ing and logic that he returned to Oxford
victorious. The scholars elected him head
master of Canterbury Hall. The Sovereign
Pontiff now interfered. On his third trial
at Lambeth he was convicted of twenty-
four opinions that were heretical and four-
teen that were erroneous. So he was driven
from Oxford to his "living" at Lutter-
worth. Here he preached to his parish-
ioners for several years, and finished the
first translation of the whole Bible into Eng-
lish. In Madame Tussaud's gallery, and in
the group of celebrities assembled around
the queen, you will see the well-known
figure of John Wickliffe. The righteous
shall be held in everlasting remembrance.
TJS /.'/■;.]// v/.s'f '/■; \ci:s.
Wickliife is called u the morning- star of the
A Bohemian prince married a princess of
England. She understood the doctrines of
Wickliffe, and was friendly to them. This
encouraged John lluss and Jerome of
Prague in the work of reformation. Tens
of thousands revolted from the doctrines and
usages of the Roman Catholic Church. Fi-
nally lluss was brought before the Council
of Constance and condemned to be burned.
Our main object in spending a day at Prague
an as to see the great picture of " John lluss
standing before the Council of Constance."
It is numbered among the largest and most
celebrated paintings on earth. It was ex-
hibited in all the principal cities of Eu-
rope, and then purchased by the Bohe-
mians for eighty thousand florins. The fig-
ures are all the si/e of life. The Emperor
Sigismond is in the chair, and lluss is stand-
ing before him in the attitude of an orator.
With me this work of art ranks next to
Raphael's " Transfiguration."
Florence, in Italy, is supposed to be the
STATUE OF MARTIN LUTHER.
most cultivated city in the world. What is
known as the "revival of learning-" in mod-
ern times began in Florence, under the pat-
ronage and rule of the Medici family. Here
Savonarola, the invincible reformer, lived.
They show you the monastery to which he
belonged, the little room in which he stud-
ied and slept. On the public square, and
right in front of the old capitol of the Tus-
can Republic, a magnificent marble fountain
throws the water high into the air. It
stands on the spot where Savonarola was ex-
ecuted, in 1498. In the audience hall of the
building has been erected the unsurpassed
statue of the Italian Protestant. The mar-
tyrs of one age are the heroes of all the fol-
lowing. ^Tot a penny to keep geniuses alive,
but pounds to build their monuments.
Of course we stopped in Wittenburg, Ger-
many A tourist says " the village is three
feet deep with Martin Luther." Such has
been his influence over the human race that
an enthusiastic admirer calls this " Luther's
world." He is the last one of the five great
men of history : Moses, Aristotle, Julius
130 h'i:Mi\is( ■i-:\<:i-:s.
( '.I'sar, St. Paul, and Martin Luther. Vf'ter
his literary and law course at the University
at Erfurt, he suddenly became a monk and
entered the Augustinian monastery at Wit-
tenberg. When Frederick the Wise found-
ed the new university there he selected Lu-
ther for the chair of philosophy- The learned
and eloquent young - Augustinian was only
twenty-five. His memorable visit to Rome
was made in his twenty-seventh year. The
ninety-five theses were nailed to the door of
the great church in Wittenberg in his thirty-
fourth year. Now, for a while, it was one
man against the world. Your valet <1e place
never tires of showing and telling: ''This
is the monastery where he lived, and here
is the large and beautiful room wherein he
studied and translated the Scriptures into
German; this is the new university, where
he lectured, and where the Reformation ac-
tually began; this is 'Luther's tree,' which
marks the spot where he publicly burned the
papal bull;" and finally he shows vou the
first Protestant church building on earth.
The result is well known.
It may surprise some people to learn that
John Calvin was a Frenchman of good con-
dition in life. At the age of twenty he was
considered the most learned man in Europe.
At the age of twenty-five he published his
" Institutes." No religious book, except
the Bible, has ever been quoted so frequent-
ly. In Geneva is the massive residence in
which he lived, the church where he wor-
shiped, the pulpit from which he preached,
and the pulpit chair in which he sat. The
cemetery contains an unmarked grave sup-
posed to be Calvin's.
In Edinburgh I always attend John
Knox's church. His dwelling house is near
by. It is a quaint old structure. I suppose
it might bring twenty dollars a month. His
monument is one of the highest in Europe.
John Knox is the founder of Presbyterian-
ism in Scotland. His fame will endure to
the " last syllable of recorded time."
In London we worshiped in City Road
Chapel, wherein John Wesley preached at
five in the morning. His home adjoins. It
is a narrow house three stories high. It
might be rented for twenty-five dollars a
month. His grave is in the rear of the chap-
el. Millions of people to-day believe the
Scriptures as John Wesley expounded them.
In my next you may be introduced to
some titled people — " great folks."
Late at night we were all on the prome-
nade deck of the steamer enjoying the lights
along the shores of Crete. With no intro-
duction an intelligent Englishman began a
conversation with me which lasted for an
hour or two. He was about the size of my
good friend Mark Cockrill, of Xashville,
but was not quite so well dressed. I soon
discovered that he had been everywhere, had
seen everybody, and knew everything about
the British Empire. I noticed a group of
ladies around his wife. On the way down
to our staterooms I said to Mrs. Young:
" We shall be certain to find that this Eng-
lishman is a personage."
We stopped a few days in Alexandria;
they passed on up the Xile. At Cairo we
met again. We were arriving at Shepherd's
Hotel; they were on the instant of depart-
ing for Jerusalem by way of the Suez Canal
and Joppa. Weeks after this, on our ar-
rival in the Holy City, they gave us a hearty
welcome to our apartments in the Mediter-
ranean Hotel. On the expedition to Jeri-
cho, the Jordan, and the Dead Sea, the Eng-
lishman and his wife rode a donkey each.
The lady had a stalwart Arab attendant
on foot. Why the Greek priest also was
along- 1 have never been able to learn. We
all enjoyed the hospitalities of the immense
Russian convent on the plains of the Jordan.
The American party sang the gospel hymns
of Moody and Sankey.
Inferring that we took an interest in re-
ligious matters and movements, this Enof-
lish gentleman invited me to go with him
to Bethlehem and see his ophthalmic institu-
tion. "This gentleman is a doctor, and
has charge of a hospital for the cure of the
blind," said I to myself. AVhereupon he
handed me a pamphlet, which gave me to
understand that lit. Hon. Sir Edmund Lech-
mere, Bart, M. P., had donated this institu-
tion, and its entire support, to the Knglish
Church Mission on Mount Zion. After
awhile I called his valot and showed him the
name on the title-page. " It is Sir Edmund
you have been traveling with all this time."
So a British baronet gives thousands of
pounds a year for the missionary enter-
prises of the Church of England! If a
wealthy American Christian gives a thou-
sand dollars a year regularly, we think he is
doing wonders. I know one. There may
On the last day, during our second visit
to the Holy City, a Greek priest came into
our little parlor and invited us to accompany
him through the hospitals and schools of the
Greek Church. We did so, and were great-
ly interested. Finally we entered a large
apartment richly furnished. It was evident-
ly a throne room. Directly we saw one
hundred full-robed priests in a broad cor-
ridor in front of us — fifty on one side, fifty
on the other. The patriarch of Jerusalem
entered, and was seated on the throne. We
were introduced, and the conversation lasted
for an hour or more. He wanted to know
all about our great country that was " so
large and so rich," and whether Protestantism
was really the prevailing religion. He then
gave us a short sketch of the Greek Church,
and did not omit to mention that he had
fourteen archiepiscopal dioceses under his
jurisdiction. A three-course luncheon fol-
lowed. The vessels were all of gold, silver,
or Sevres China. The plates and goblets
blazed with jewels. The patriarch informed
us that no habit or custom in the East had
changed since the days of Job. " True, O
king! " I suppose that we shall never have
an explanation of this interview, unless it is
this: A man with world-wide intelligence
never loses an opportunity to learn about
the earth and the man that is on it. lie is
like a scholar who ransacks a library to rec-
tify a syllable.
On our first arrival in Berlin we stopped
at a hotel on the Linden. We were not
pleased. This took air from some of the
servants. On the third morning we received
a letter signed: "Frau Yon Shaak." She
could make us comfortable at 20)> Frederick
Street at twenty-seven marks a day for five
people. She certainly did. One evening at
RE UIMsCESCEti. 137
dinner she told us about a delightful inter-
view she had with Victoria, mother of the
present Emperor. On the old lady's birth-
day she received a costly present from the
old kaiser. At another dinner she intro-
duced us to her brother-in-law, Baron Von
Shaak. So I determined to find out where
we were stopping. I invited the frau to
come to my room for a final settlement. She
did so, and the bill was paid in gold.
I said to her: "Madam, who are you?"
She answered: "I am the Countess Von
Shaak. I began life a court lady in the
family of the old kaiser. My husband is
Baron Von Shaak, a general in the German
army. He was degraded for drunkenness,
and is now employed in the customhouse of
Xew York. For the support of my family
I have converted this home into a pension."
" But, madam, you say that the titled
people of Germany and the common people
never mix any more than oil and water. Have
we met none but titled people at your ta-
" Xot one."
"Then why are we plain American peo-
ple here at your solicitation? 1 '
u O, you Americans are born lords.' 1 She
and her daughters spoke English and French
On my return, in the fall of 1.KS7, Bishop
McTyeire and Bishop Wilson were partial
enough to place me on the Xashville Dis-
trict. This suited my age exactly The
Methodist preachers do not expect so much
of their presiding elders (in the way of
preaching) as they did in my early days. T
was continued on this appointment until the
fall of 1800. After this I journeyed through
Spain, Russia, and Scandinavia. When I
returned Bishop Wilson gave me another de-
lightful appointment, Carroll Street Church.
1 Iere I remained until I concluded to spend
another summer in Europe. Since then the
regency of Belmont College has occupied
my time. I am too fond of private life and
There are other reminiscences to he wril-
len, but they will not be in chronological
Forasmuch as I entered the Christian
ministry in 1845, the epoch of the Louis-
vile Convention, they say that I should de-
vote one chapter to our publishing interests.
The Western Methodist was established in
Nashville in 1833 by llev- Lewis Garrett
and Rev John Newland Maffitt. This was
a private enterprise without much backing
of any sort. The Sovthwesteru Christian
Advocate was established in 1836 by the
General Conference of the Methodist Epis-
copal Church. Rev Thomas Stringfield
was elected editor. No man in the
South was quite so well prepared for
this line of work. Then came Dr. John B.
McFerrin from 1840 to 1858. This gentle-
man succeeded at everything he undertook.
At one time he was assisted by Dr. M. M.
Henkle; at another time, by Dr. C. B. Par-
sons. The paper adopted its present name
in 1846. The General Conference of 1858
elected a young' man to our ecclesiastical
tripod — II. X McTyeire, 1 ).D. It was
soon discovered that the Christian, Adrocate
had an opinion on every subject, expressed
in a style that reminded one of Emerson's
"English Traits." Xext came Dr. T O.
Summers. lie was continued on the paper
from 1866* to 1878. lie had no assistant and
no trouble, except the difficulty of finding as
much literary work as he could do. "We
who are slow and indolent kept away from
his office. Then Dr. O. P. Fitzgerald edit-
ed the paper from 1878 to 1890. For a while
he was assisted by Dr. W. A. Candler. The
General Conference of 1890 elected two ed-
itors, Dr. E. E. Iloss and Dr. E. M. Bounds.
The first of these remains, and will be like-
ly to remain as long as we want the rival to
Dr. Buckley, of Yew York. My excellent
friend Dr. Boswcll has also been on the
paper for more than six years.
Our Sunday school periodicals have been
edited by the following brethren: Drs. Sum-
mers, Haygood, Cunnyngham, Kirkland, ami
Atkins. The present assistant is Dr. Beaty;
the former ones, Dr. Lyons and John L.
The editors of our Quarterly Review have
been: Dr. Bascom, Dr. Doggett, Dr. Ilin-
ton, Dr. Summers, Dr. Harrison, and Dr.
"We have published two literary period-
icals for ladies, The Compavioih and the
Home Circle. The one was edited by Dr.
Henkle; the other, by Dr. Huston.
Our missionary periodicals have been pro-
duced by the incumbents of the mission
The Epworth Era has been edited by Dr.
Steel and Dr. Du Bose.
From 1815 to 1854 Dr. John Early was
the Book Agent of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, South. His work was all done by
contract. Dr. Edward Stevenson, located
at Louisville, Ky., was his assistant. The
Publishing House was located at Nashville
in 185-1. Dr. Edward Stevenson and Dr. F.
A. Owen were elected Agents. Neither of
them knew what is meant nowadays by pub-
lishing a book. Owen resigned for a little
while, and Dr. J. E. Pvans, of Georgia, took
his place. In 1858 Dr. J. 13. McIYrriii was
elected Book Agent, and continued in office
eight years. Rev Richard Abbey, as financial
agent, was his partner. Dr. A. II. Pedford
was made Book Agent in 18GG, and contin-
ued in office for twelve consecutive years.
He built the present Publishing House. Tn
1878 Dr. McFerrin was again elected, and
remained in office until his death. Col. L.
D. Palmer was his business manager.
The present Agents went into office in
the year 1887. The time of their adminis-
tration may be truthfully called "the golden
age " of our Publishing House. AVe are
now worth nearly one million of dollars.
Barbee tfc Smith have paid the superannuates
The Book Committee is composed of thir-
teen gentlemen. Some of us have been in
our places regularly for more than a quar-
ter of a century Xof one of us has ever
received a dollar for his services. Xot one
of us has ever borrowed a dollar from the
D. M. SMITH.
I have written this brief reminiscence at a
single sitting, and purely from memory- I
have purposely omitted the name of one
glorified personage, simply from the fact that
I do not call to mind the exact name of
the office he filled.
If you will look over the long list of con-
nectional officers herein mentioned, you will
probably be surprised at the number who
were elevated to the episcopacy.
" Who is my neighbor? " Steam and te-
legraphy are answering this question rapidly.
I can leave my front gate in Xashville, and
in less than twenty days of the easiest and
most delightful travel I can enter the Jaffa
Gate of the city of Jerusalem. The dis-
tance is nearly eight thousand miles.
The Holy Land is a little strip of country
on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean
Sea. It is about the size of "Wales, a prov-
ince of the British Isles. Xorman McLeod,
the great Scotch preacher, went to the top
of Mizpch, where the prophet Samuel spent
most of his time. He looked westward, and
saw the ships from the Mediterranean land-
ing at Joppa and Ca^sarea. He looked
eastward, and saw the strata in the rocks
of the mountains of Moab. To the north
the ruins of Dan were plainly in view; to
the south, the ruins of Beersheba. It was a
clear Syrian atmosphere through which he
looked. There is nothing like it on earth.
It is now demonstrated that Moses could
have seen every mile of the Promised Land
from the top of Pisgah.
Monotheism originated, or was revealed,
in this little, rugged, desolated region. The
revelation came not to a scholar, or a philos-
opher, or a savant of any grade, but to an
Oriental sheik sitting in his tent and listen-
ing to his flocks and herds, his menservants
and his maidservants. According to Jona-
than Edwards, the whole human race had
apostatized into idolatry when Abraham
was called to the land of Canaan. Since
his day all orthodox people have said: "I
believe in God, the Father Almighty, Maker
of heaven and earth."
There are five cities in the world that are
called "holy cities:" Benares for the Hin-
doos, Jerusalem for Jews and Christians,
Mecca for the Mohammedans, Pome for the
Poman Catholics, and Moscow for the Greek
Church. There is not a sect of Christians
on earth that does not believe in the reli-
gious virtue of a pilgrimage, with the single
exception of Protestants. They believe that
"the jnst shall live by faith."
The following is the itinerary of a full
pilgrimage to the Holy Land: 1. Worship
in the Church of the Annunciation at Naza-
reth. 2. Attend service in the Church of
the Nativity at Bethlehem and drink a small
glass of wine. 3. Go to the pilgrims' bath-
ing place and wash in the Jordan. 4. Wind
up your devotions in the Church of the
Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, where reli-
gious services have been held every day
and every night since the time of Constan-
tine the Great. After this the pilgrims
travel straight to heaven, and never halt.
Away back in distant antiquity a Jcbusite
chief fortified the present Mount Zion. A
settlement grew up around the fortification.
The place was named Jcbus. About a mile
distant the village of Salem was growing up
in the neighborhood of Mount Moriah. Aft-
er a long time these two towns met in the
Tyropo'an Valley Then the city was called
Jebussalem. But forasmuch as the human
tongue is fonder of liquids than it is of oth-
er consonants, the people finally said Jerusa-
lem. It was never a large place, and never
can be. The little circular valley, scooped
out on the tiptop of the mountains of Judea,
affords room for about fifty thousand people.
The additions to the city of London in one
year would fill two such valleys. The walls
of Jerusalem are only two miles and a quar-
ter in circumference.
My last excursion in the immediate neigh-
borhood of the Holy City was to the top of
the Mount of Olives. After crossing the
brook Kedron, and passing by the Garden of
Gethsemane, I dismounted. I had become
a pilgrim sure enough. I could not consent
to ride my donkey up the identical way along
which my divine Master had always traveled
on foot. On top of the mount I was con-
ducted to the traditional spot from which
Christ ascended to heaven. It is marked by
a great, flat, hewn stone. On this I stood
where, with a field glass, I could have
counted all the noticeable buildings in the
city. I thought of " twenty-seven sieges,
seventeen captures, and seven demolitions "
through which the place has passed, accord-
ing to history -
But to the ascension. Let Luke speak:
"And he led them out until they were over
against Bethany; and he lifted up his hands
and blessed them. And it came to pass,
while he blessed them, he parted from them,
and was carried up into heaven. And they
worshiped him, and they returned to Jeru-
salem with great joy; and were continually
in the temple, blessing God." Again Luke
says: "And when he had said these things,
as they were looking, he was taken up; and
a cloud received him out of their sight.
And while they were looking steadfastly
into heaven as he went, behold, two men
stood by them in white apparel; which also
said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye look-
ing into heaven? this Jesus, which was re-
ceived up from you into heaven, shall so
come in like manner as ye beheld him going
into heaven." Here I shut the Book and
clasped the clasp. From this spot my Lord
ascended through the deep blue sky to the
home of God. Worlds that never heard the
RE MIX I S EX V E .s' . 149
story of redeeming love might have stood
still and gazed upon the splendid pageant on
its shining way-
1 advise all intelligent and educated peo-
ple who are religiously disposed to visit
Palestine. Take the Bible as your guide-
book, and your faith Avill be confirmed. It
is a Mohammedan country, but all Chris-
tian sects are freely tolerated. The Mosque
of Omar is only a short distance from the
Church of the Holy Sepulcher. I was
pleased to notice that the last rays of the
setting sun shone upon the gilded cross of
the Christian Church. I also advise illiter-
ate and skeptical people to stay away from
the Holy Land. They will learn nothing
beyond the fact that it is a land of ruins,
and that the scenery around Jerusalem is
the saddest and dreariest they ever saw.
The mode of travel is abominable everv-
where. Society people had better attend
the Paris Exposition.
I have approached the holy city of the
Catholics from every point of the compass.
The same scenes present themselves. Ruins !
ruins! You see and almost hear the work
of destruction going on around you. Aque-
ducts, baths, columns, and triumphal arches ;
palaces, temples, fountains, and basilicas;
the Forum, the Colosseum, and other gigan-
tic structures are either in utter dilapida-
tion or decaying by the inch.
The country around the holy city is
slightly undulating; but the seven hills on
which the city is built are distinctly out-
lined. In one half-day's drive you learn
the situation and name of each hill.
Globe trotters are in the habit of putting
a characteristic adjective before the names
of remarkable rivers: the mysterious Xile,
the sacred Jordan, the blue Danube, the
castellated Rhine, the yellow Tiber. The
Tiber runs through the city of Rome. It is
certainly the muddiest and yellowest little
stream one ever saw-
Since the unification of all Italy by such
men as Mazzini, Cavour, and Victor Im-
manuel; and since the royal family are in
residence on the Quirinal Hill, modern Rome
has been growing with great rapidity. Rows
of business houses and dwellings remind
one of Kansas City a few years ago. Roma
la siuperba will be an appropriate designa-
tion before the twentieth century closes.
The Eternal City has been a center of
world-wide influence for more than two
thousand years. Up to the fifth century
after Christ all the civilized world felt the
influence of its laws and government and
military science. Since the opening of the
seventh century the largest body of Chris-
tians on earth has been governed by the pa-
The two hundredth and fifty-ninth suc-
cessor of St. Peter lives in the largest and
most richly furnished palace on earth. I
quote a paragraph from a celebrated travel-
er and writer: "Again and again I strolled
through the immense halls of the 'Vatican,
and can only say that it is a forest of stat-
uary, and ought to be divided among the
world. But what shall I say of the Vatican
itself? How shall I describe it? I can
only say that it is more than one thousand
feet long and eight hundred feet wide; that it
contains eight grand staircases, two hundred
smaller ones, twenty courts, four thousand
four hundred and twenty-two apartments,
and a library no one knows how large. One
room in it measures three hundred and
The haughty Babylonian, the bearlike Per-
sian, the quick-paced Grecian, and the eagle-
eyed Roman Empires have passed away, but
the holy city still rests upon her seven
hills, and attracts pilgrims from every quar-
ter of the earth to enjoy the ceremonies of
Holy Week. Every hotel and pntsioj/, and
restaurant and cafe is packed, and the re-
sources of Christian hospitality are exhaust-
ed. We began wiring for rooms before we
quit the shores of Prance.
*" Twenty Thousand Miles."
The center of attraction is St. Peter's
(■liurch. The darkness of every evening
finds thousands and tens of thousands in the
vast building. How large is it? "I will
not give yon feet and inches. "' says an old
writer, u but say that if Trinity Church in
New York is finished on the plan with which
it was commenced, yon could pile about
twelve of them into St. Peters, and have con-
siderable room left for walking about. Thirty
or forty common churches could be stowed
away in it without much trouble. But this
is nothing — the marble, the statuary, the
costly tombs, the architecture, are inde-
scribable. It seems as if Art had fallen in
love with her own creation, and in the en-
thusiasm of her passion had thrown away all
her wealth upon it/'
The most interesting performance during
Holy Week is the chanting of the Mist r< re-
This piece of music is sung only once a
year, on the night of Good Friday- 1 have
heard it twice. It is said that an Emperor
of Austria once wrote to the pope request-
ing a copy, that he might have it sung in
154 /•'/•: MINIMU-JXC E s.
his own cathedral. The effect was so incon-
sequential that he wrote to his holiness, in-
timating- that a spurious copy had been sent
him. The pope replied that a true copy had
been sent to his imperial majesty, but that
the scenery and the circumstances and the
Italian voices had been subtracted from it.
I have spent nearly five months in Italy
The people are the leading singers of the
human race. The Germans and French can
compose, but the Italians can sing. Let us
suppose that you have been up the Xile,
over in Syria, up to Constantinople, and, by
way of Athens, across to .Naples. Instant-
ly you are charmed with music once more.
It floats in among the six-o'clock diners; it
attends you to the fashionable public square;
the little boats over to beautiful Capri have
two bands each; the bathers out in the water
swim by music; you actually go to sleep in
your hotel listening to the songs and instru-
ments of the lazzaroni, sitting upon the curb-
stones. The Italian has an abundance of
time. The most popular saying on the pen-
insula is dolcej'ttr ■nlrnte.